As China's industrialization and urbanization accelerate the pace of rapid socio-economic development.Countries' agricultural policy has been a substantial adjustment, with the benefit of improved collective land, rural land issues also continue to increase, seriously affected the new socialist the pace of construction in rural areas, hindering the rural economy steady and rapid development. This paper explores the rural land management problems, and propose some solutions for reference.
Rural land management issues, solutions.
Land is the survival and development of farmers' livelihood security is the most basic way of production of farmers in recent years, China's rural policy of continuous change, the effectiveness of land has been greatly improved, which makes the land in rural areas and highlights the growing problem out of land and farmers' interests are closely linked, to solve the problem of rural land management in relation to the pace of building new countryside, so we have to carefully examine the problems in land management, efforts to find solutions in order to promote rural sustainable development.
1, rural land management problems.
After reform and opening, China's rural household contract responsibility system to take the land, the laws and regulations also will continue to improve, to get the support of the majority of farmers, promoting rural development, but there are some places to ignore the existence of the law, the law failing, contrary to the wishes of farmers, against the legitimate rights and interests of farmers, affecting the stable development of rural areas. Overall, rural land management in the following deficiencies:
1.1 Villagers homestead illegal endless.
Currently, there are mainly rural homestead lawlessness following three categories: First, the unauthorized area and approved by deception, homestead, at present, there are many housing households have been taken to conceal houses, false household population change household and other deception approved homestead. two illegal transfer homestead, the use of collective assets invisible transactions >> << PRC Land Management Law Article 63:
"Farmers collectively owned land use right shall not be assigned, transferred or leased for non-agricultural construction, however, in line with the overall land use planning and legally obtained land for construction enterprises due to bankruptcy, mergers and other situations resulting legal transfer of land use rights of except "." Land Administration Law >> Article 62 states: "Villagers sell, rent housing, and then apply the homestead, shall not be approved." XinFangJian land in the county, there are many cases is reflect some of the villagers through improper means to obtain a two or even multiple homestead, then the homestead hands down transferred to reap huge profits from the illegal This phenomenon, especially in the county combined with the more prominent part and the outskirts of town, virtually established the land stealth trading market, not only affects the homestead management, but also to society caused a lot of social unrest. three is a super area of land, without changing the rural homestead purposes phenomena have occurred, << Hunan Province for Implementing 'PRC land Management Law> Measures >> Section 32 provides that: "Each household cultivated land area does not exceed 130m2, with barren hills and wasteland no more than 210m2, with other land not exceeding 180m2", but in practice, are far beyond the household approved area. according << >> 76,77 PRC Land Administration Law stipulates that deal with illegal construction is dismantled buildings and other facilities, to restore the status quo or the confiscation of land newly constructed buildings and other facilities, and the law gives land management department's enforcement powers is a single stop right punishment in accordance with legal procedures, apply to the court executive, had to take a very long time, has become the scale illegal construction period, this time again performed extremely strong public resentment, it must involved with the economic interests of farmers. confiscation or removal is not realistic, this is the current land management in the very difficult issues, deal with the difficult problem of illegal area, therefore, covers the illegal behavior, you must take reasonable and effective administrative, economic and legal means consolidated.
1.2 weak awareness of economical and intensive land.
As China's industrial development, accelerate the pace of urbanization, which makes land relationship tense situation, while in terms of land use, waste of resources and resource shortages exist. Mainly reflected in three aspects: First, the current farm construction of a large number of farmland, resulting in the reduction of rural land area, affecting the interests of farmers. According to the survey, the annual reduction in non-agricultural construction land area throughout the year to reduce the land area of all proportion to occupy at least 30%, especially in the towns surrounding or near the main roads of high quality arable land, these losses are difficult to develop wasteland to make up the second is as of December 31, 2010, China was 18.26 million mu of arable land, compared with 1.949 billion in 1997 reduce 1.23 million mu mu, increasing pressure to protect arable land in China per capita arable land area of 1.58 acres from 10 years ago, was reduced to 1.38 acres, only 40% of the world average, "At present, some places in the real estate development, urban transformation and all kinds of park construction, there are still farmland, suburban vegetable and even the phenomenon of basic farmland, although around the orderly conduct of rural land remediation of land to achieve a "balance" of management, complementing the new land, but new cultivated land quality does not pass, it is bound to affect the income of farmers. three is the current accelerated pace of urban construction in some places in order to pursue the construction of speed, ignoring the construction of reasonable arrangement and planning in the construction site did not for rational planning, resulting in the phenomenon of idle land more than the other rural settlements is not concentrated, showing the dispersion state, more than one house, empty villages and the phenomenon of excessive land also caused serious waste of land resources.
1.3 land contracting and management operations are not standardized.
After the reform of rural taxes and fees, the rural collective economic income greatly reduced, leading to collective economy is weak, make ends meet. Economic source in some places less mobile land contract fee in addition to outside, almost no other income, and even the emergence of new debt. Therefore, in order improve the income of the collective economy, some local grass-roots cadres tried to change "land contract >> recover or adjust the farmers contracted land, so that the interests of farmers has been greatly compromised. grassroots leaders and some local cities and towns in order to get personal interests, without the permission of contracting households forced circulation farmers contracted land, the sale of collective land, or through expensive external rental access to economic benefits, including misappropriation of peasant land compensation and resettlement subsidies phenomenon is most prominent, resulting peasant discontent, and even groups of petitions.Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
2, rural land management countermeasures.
2.1 strict homestead approval, and to regulate the homestead approval process.
New homestead individual application by the villagers, the villagers 'conference 2/3 or more members, or 2/3 of the villagers' representatives, and post the township of Land and Resources is responsible for reviewing the homestead declare the work of County Land Resources Bureau unified audit, on the meet the conditions for approval, registration of the right to do, issue a certificate in the review process, to strictly enforce the villagers one can only have one homestead, household area not exceeded. rural villagers one has two homestead, must be set by the villagers or the village to recover the excess of the homestead law, the unified arrangement use right by the villagers meeting or villager representatives meeting to discuss, and in fact has formed over the standard land for housing, in principle, be respect the wishes of farmers, shall not be forcibly removed for reasons such as the formation of real estate inherited multiple dwelling, the villagers can sell excess property, you can maintain the status quo, but not renovated, houses damaged it shall withdraw the excess of the homestead.
For new houses, land for housing to achieve the outcome open and examine the scene, pointing to the scene, the scene starts actinomycetes and final acceptance to the scene, accept their supervision.
2.2 strict compliance with the rural land contract management system, and maintain the legitimate rights and interests of farmers.
Because rural popularizing's great publicity, the majority of farmers on China's land policy, laws and regulations have a full understanding, know their own rights and obligations, to know how to safeguard their legitimate rights and interests of grassroots cadres should raise more awareness of the law and should therefore be organized grassroots cadres to seriously study the relevant land management laws and regulations, enhance their awareness of the law, ruling according to law, to ensure that relevant policies, routes and policy put in place in the land contract period, the village cadres must not interfere or force farmers to undertake the transfer of land, not harm the land contracted by farmers during the sole discretion to farmers the right to decide the land circulation period and circulation way of compensation for land and standards should be discussed and decided by the parties themselves, and resolutely resist the transfer of land through illegal means, and breach of contract behavior in upholding the stability and improve the rural land contract management system under the premise of follow paid, according to the principle of voluntary and efforts to explore new mechanisms for land transfer.
2.3 to achieve both economic development and the protection of arable land, strict land compensation standards.
Strict accordance with the law of the land acquisition program organized approved land, compensation for land acquisition and resettlement full compensation as required by law in place, and make sure resettled before the demolition, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of landless farmers in urbanization and industrialization process, not only to see importance of economic development, it should adhere to the sustainability of development, to ensure the rational use of land and prevent waste of land. efforts to achieve economic and social development. strict incremental, manage and volume, moving the stock, intensive and efficient for the standards, cut costs, and vigorously implement the old village on the old city transformation, utilizing idle base, efforts to improve land utilization in the rural land acquisition problems, the common problem is the low land compensation and land value-added distribution unscientific serious , which is leading to a lot of land is occupied mainly so in order to the sustainable development of rural areas, should be strictly land compensation standards, strict distinction between public land for land requisition compensation and management, combined with the local land market prices, so that people get due compensation. Full account of the living conditions of local farmers, and in accordance with the minimum living standard should be given to the market value of the land.
2.4 to strengthen law enforcement supervision, serious investigation at law covering the behavior of farmers lost their land to provide for the necessary social protection.
Continue to establish and improve the enforcement and inspection system, increase the illegal occupation of land damage efforts to investigate the behavior of the interests of farmers, and resolutely safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of farmers to protect social stability. Although in recent years the state promulgated a series of preferential policies for farmers' land, but because operating efficiency of agriculture is not high, the accelerating pace of China's economic development, prices continued to rise, farmers' land to create a net profit decreased revenues from the land alone is difficult to maintain their livelihoods. rural health care, pension insurance and minimum living standard security system is not perfect, and narrow coverage, farmers lost their land simply can not maintain a normal life. Therefore, countries should accelerate the construction and improvement of rural social security system to ensure the implementation of its true, especially for farmers lost their land, priority should be considered to ensure that their basic living. Most farmers lost their land without technology, culture cable quality and not high and low i no certain sources of funding and operation of the road, in the employment side and there are significant difficulties. Local governments can set up a special employment security agencies, the loss of land on vocational training for farmers, to a certain extent promote their employment, health, then it is guaranteed, but also improve the quality of farmers' cultural claim, in favor of new rural construction of spiritual civilization.
3 Conclusion of the farmer who ii. Piece grabbed the largest proportion of the interests of farmers since then relations given the country's women and development of land as farmers depend on the development and survival of the foundation, since then affect farmers' root wood interest, therefore, in the urbanization, the next industry, it should be strengthened to hear him on the system, strict accordance with the law and safeguard the interests of farmers as a grassroots} should continue to enhance awareness of the law, with the scientific concept of development concept of armed their own minds, change their thinking, practical implementation of the relevant country on earth policy to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of farmers, and promote a new socialist countryside construction, to achieve sustainable development of society.
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