On the design of beet harvesting machines

Papers: Xinjiang is an important advantage beet crops, it is not only one of the main raw material for the sugar industry, and its stems and leaves and sugar residue is an excellent livestock feed. Blessed with natural advantages as well as the continuous improvement of cultivation techniques, so that Xinjiang beet cultivation area and production levels in the country at a high level, but beet cultivation and harvesting methods based mainly on manual, mechanical, supplemented by labor capacity, high cost, low yield, poor efficiency, especially sugar beet harvesting machinery, and other issues have been promotion and has not been resolved, greatly limiting the further development of the sugar beet industry, so beet harvesting machinery research and promotion, to improve the level of mechanization in our region, improve labor productivity, increase farmers' income and improve the quality of such areas have a harvest significance. [1]

First, the development of sugar beet harvester Analysis

(A) Foreign beet harvester development status and trends of foreign sugar beet harvest mechanization began in the 50 to 70 years, such as France, Germany, Poland, Russia and other countries, the use of self-propelled beet harvester, front complete the clean-Ying Ye, Cut Ying, rear complete the excavation, set stack (pile), once completed beet harvest the entire process. [2] is generally used harvesting process in three ways: by a complete cut tassel machinery, excavation, picking, cleaning and all other processes of loading Combine Harvester and technology, with a high degree of mechanization, less labor, production and high efficiency; plane by the two sets of two, respectively, to complete the harvest process, this equipment simple structure, high efficiency, and other operations to adapt to low-lying wet ground conditions; the 3 sets of special equipment to complete three sections of the harvest process. currently abroad beet harvester trend is to increase productivity, to the wide, high-speed, high-power self-propelled combine working machine direction, focusing on new research and hydraulic working parts, electronics, computers and other new technologies, such as hydraulic and mechatronics automatic device, in order to improve the adaptability of the machine. [3]
(Two) of sugar beet harvesting machine development status of combine harvester had tried, but failed to promote. Currently, sugar beet harvest is still to complete the excavation by mechanical operations, transportation, labor job is complete pick set heap, cutting, loading combination mainly traditional beet harvesting methods, and gradually promote the segmented harvesting methods. [4] Break harvest is picking up in the mining → → → Cutting → Set heap shipment processes, use of different equipment and tractors which is characterized by a variety of equipment of simple structure, small power requirements, good quality work, but the whole process of harvesting equipment possession more jobs more often, etc. At present, sugar beet harvester is no reason why the popularity in the country, mainly due to beet harvester cut the top quality not high, coupled with the construction of its sugar beet harvester harvesting operations completed by the project to another, but also because of its working parts configuration.

Second, the physical and mechanical properties of sugar beet Analysis of the physical and mechanical properties of sugar beet, beet harvesting machinery can be used to provide development and corresponding mechanical parameters.

(A) The physical characteristics of beet sugar beet size and shape are very different; especially in terms of size and weight is a big difference, so beet in the process of cutting the top of the clamping force required and the amount of cutting is vastly different. beet root tuber can be divided into head, neck and root root body of three parts (see Figure 1), of which the lowest rate of root head sugary, root collar sugar content is high, the highest sugar content of the root body, to root tail and reducing sugar content from the cross-sectional view, the central sugar content was the highest level of inner and outer minimum. [5] It can be seen that the sugar content of beet root is not uniform, cut the top of the process, to accurately grasp cut the top position, cut the top in order to reduce losses through the measured maximum diameter of beet root 12cm, length 22cm, the aspect ratio is not. According to statistics, beet root, the average weight of about 1.5 kg; mean straight after approximately 10cm; maximum diameter of about 20cm; tuber average length of about 20cm; maximum length of about 32cm. [6] (
Two) mechanical properties of sugar beet by beet complete compression tests at different speeds, obtained at different compression speeds beet rupture point, the average rupture point 5291.077N. Among them, the compression speed on the elastic properties of sugar beet has obvious effect, the greater the compression rate, the more obvious the elastic properties; compression time shorter rupture beet smaller displacement. [7] The compression force - displacement curve shown in Figure 2, therefore, beet cut the top clamp fixing device body using its clamping force to be controlled under the breaking point, to prevent cracking or crushed beet root.

Three, beets cut the top machine design

(A) beet topping machine design program to determine the sub-type harvesting process easy and medium tractors, more suitable for China's current sugar beet production. Beet topping machine harvesting technology as a key sub-type of equipment must be meet the requirements of beet topping; meet the structure, function under the premise, but also to consider the efficiency of its work through a variety of cutting the top of the existing machine key components analysis, we found that in beet harvester cut the top on the use of sugar beet devices, mainly driven by the driven disc copying, and composed of flat cutter This beet topping unit although relatively compact body, but cut quality is not very stable. Currently, all sugar beet growing areas generally use the following two cutting Methods: artificial multi-tool machining and cutting knife sliced ​​roots approach .1 multi-tool cutting method: a knife from the root of the root head leaf scars at the bottom row, tapered upwards like a pencil wildly 5-6 knives, thickness 2 ~ 3mm, the root head twilight white. neither cut too much, resulting in the loss of raw materials; also can not stay green head too much, otherwise the acquisition will be charged inclusions .2 knife sliced ​​the same method and the mechanical cutting, that is the root tuber head leaf scars at the bottom row 1.5cm at the top level cut knife, cut off the foliage and remove the remaining root dry petiole head, cut off the root end 1cm below. knife sliced ​​law, labor, high efficiency , and small surface wounds, root rot disease and not susceptible to easy field preserved. [8] We have considered multi-blade cutting machines, but more and position of arrangement of the cutter to cut the top of the quality of sugar beet has a larger impact, and the structure is relatively complex, efficiency has not been greatly improved in order to be able to accurately cut the top, we propose a novel based on the current sugar beet harvest process route, namely: First, by the dozen cherry cherry leaf beet machine to play go, Beet digger then shipped to the sugar beet after excavation to cut the top of the job, or in the process of transporting shipment to cut the top job. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com
(two) beet cut Top aircraft structural design based on the geometry of beet root sugar content distribution and mechanical properties and other characteristics, cut the top device for the current domestic and international presence of defects such as cut top is not accurate, after repeated theoretical analysis and simulation study, we designed a species of small beet cut the top device This device uses beet cut the top belt transmission, beets through "V" shaped belts and inverted "L" shaped baffle orientation device consisting of orientation, and finally by the fixed disc cutter complete the beet root cutting which cut the top part of the apparatus main feed, transmission parts, and cut the top part of the three major components shown in Figure 3.

(Three) the feeding mechanism design beets cut the top part of the main feed unit from the rack 1, pulleys 2, inverted "L" shaped baffle 3, the partition plate 4 ", V" transmission belt pulley 5 and 6 components Its main role is to disorderly beet root rationalize into a single vertical, and the top part of the tuber green belt in the fall before the transfer. unify all down to ensure beet root on the conveyor belt below the top part of all green uniform forward. beet size is generally Length 20 ~ 40cm, width 10 ~ 25cm. beet in the transportation process, falling to both sides in order to prevent and suppress the beet conveyor belts, specially designed side fence and idler its belt force pulleys are provided, in order to simplify the transmission structure ", V" is used between the pulley belt drive bevel gear whose transmission ratio of 3:1. two "V" with a certain angle to each other, the spacing between 20cm, thus ensuring the beet root morphology becomes a single vertical. beet root in order to ensure smooth passage guide, inverted "L" shaped baffle and transmission belt 6 ramp off the part with the shortest distance between the maximum diameter of the same beet root, and conveyor belts highly consistent with the baffle. Therefore, during the shortest distance is taken as 20cm. The structure diagram shown in Figure 4.

(D) conveying mechanism design beet cut the top part of the main conveyor apparatus 1 by a conveying belt separation plate 2, the pulley 3 and the rack 4 that its structure is shown in Figure 5 and its main role is to direct a good beet Roots delivered to the following cut the top part, and easy to rationalize the absence of beet root for artificial correction, in order to better complete the following cut the top job, of which the purpose is to ensure that the partition plate from beet root partition inside the way through in order to cut the top part of the right by-beet root all the top, its power is transmitted through the pulley in order to ensure the adoption of beet root, separated by the distance between the plates is taken as 26cm. According to the geometry characteristics of sugar beet, the average length of 200mm, maximum length of about 320mm, for which we use bandwidth B of 500mm belt conveyor, thus ensuring the smooth passage of sugar beet on the belt.

(Five) cut the top design agency cut the top five institutions mainly from the rack, power section (a pulley and motor 6), the cutting disc 4 and blade, cutter shafts, gear boxes and with a guiding device into the hopper 3 and discharge device 7 and other components, beet cut the top of the main working parts machine whose structure diagram shown in Figure 6. Cut the top agency's role is to complete the final beet root cut the top job, its working principle is: beet root from the above partial vertical conveyor fed into the hopper, after fixing the cutting disc cutter complete cut the top action, Finally, after the cutting good beet discharge hopper discharge, belonging to cut the top vertical type power feeding machine, where the cutting disc is the agency's main working parts, and its main parameters are: cutting speed, cutting angle, the blade angle. beet cut Top used cutting force, cutting energy consumption depends largely on which these parameters. research data shows that sugar beet unit cutting area of ​​minimum energy is 3.10 (kg-cm) / cm. [9] The main body cut the top or the use of a knife flat cut method to cut beet green top, but you can cut the top thickness and diameter of the feed hopper height adjustment, can cut the top reasonable control losses.

IV Conclusion

1 In this paper, the physical properties of sugar beet and sugar content and mechanical properties of the distribution and other characteristics, devised using pulley transmission, "V"-shaped belt and inverted "L" shaped baffle orientation constitutes a directional device and cut using a fixed disc Cutting knife cut the top of the main structure of the machine.

(2) to study and determine the beet topping device basic dimensions of the parts: part of the feed two "V" with a certain angle to each other, the minimum distance between 20cm; conveying portion conveyor bandwidth 500mm; separator of the distance between 26cm.

3 This article is designed beet topping machine features are: feed conveyor portion having a guiding function; cut the top part of the vertical feeding way, can play a role in positioning and simulated field cutting beets with similar features. cut the top principle is accurate cut top, the loss is small, and cut the top better advantage, able to adapt to all kinds of use of sub-harvesting methods to cut the top of the beet root operations; basically meet the sugar industry and small farmers on beet cut the top requirements, but also can reduce the cut will give farmers more than the loss. posted on free download http://eng.hi138.com

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