papers Type:Culture Papers
- Rural Research Papers
Post Time:2010-2-8 15:36:00
Zhang Shu Qi (CPC Party Committee of Henan Province Sheqi County)
Abstract: The process of urbanization of landless farmers produced a special groups are in urgent need for the establishment of corresponding social security system. This paper briefly discusses the resettlement of landless peasants in the current problems, it is recommended for the landless peasants establish a sound social security system for the landless peasants to provide legal
aid and Employment
for the establishment of the corresponding mechanism.
Keywords: social security system and the concept of landless peasants
In recent years, as China's urbanization, industrialization, speed up the process of a large number of rural collective land has been expropriated. Once the farmers lost their land became a farm, no land, no post employment, social security no copies of the three non-people, living in trouble and become a new vulnerable groups. Therefore, how to protect the legitimate rights of landless peasants, landless peasants to solve the social security worries on China's economic development
and the 'three rural' problems have a direct impact is conducive to the normal process of urbanization in China, but also conducive to building a socialist harmonious new rural areas.
A result of China's farmers lost ground Cause Analysis
At present, China farmers whose land is about more than 5000 million, due to industrialization and urbanization process a large number of agricultural land into non-agricultural land, every year at least 400 million farmers have become landless peasants. It is predicted that by 2030 China will have 70000000-80000000 of the landless peasants. Despite the rapid economic development in some areas, farmers receive compensation for lost ground after a relatively high. However, the survey shows that 56% of the landless peasants lost ground after the drop in living standards, some farmers have become landless 'farm no land, employment, post-free to ensure no copies, entrepreneurial money' groups, which raise a number of social conflicts. In almost all regions, especially in economically developed areas, suburban cities, there is land losses caused by the farmers, the unemployment problem.
The farmers lost territories of complicated factors, mainly the following aspects:
1.1 of industrialization, urbanization and accelerating the rapid advance of industrialization, urbanization is the inevitable trend of economic and social development, but also the only way to achieve modernization. However, to accelerate the process of industrialization, urban Construction
has entered a new round of rapid expansion, rapid increase of construction land, will land to farmers.
1.2 arable land property rights are unclear there is the current land system is the major shortcomings of the land contractual operation right of the farmers are still not fully and clearly the meaning of land property rights is unclear, the farmers obtained land rights through contracting is still a lack of effective legal protection. In operation, the Government has the absolute right to the allocation of land, land owned by collectives are virtual, collective land, but most operators, managers, a lack of rigid constraints of land acquisition.
1.3 land acquisition compensation standard is too low the farmers of China's land expropriation compensation is simple, compensation standard is too low. In the past, some units and enterprises farmers from the land requisition, resettlement farmers as long as the unit or corporate employment, compensation can be a little. In recent years, despite the standard of compensation has increased, but still relatively low, far below the actual market price
, coupled with the detention of intermediate links, farmers get less.
1.4 vigorously in some places the image of Engine
ering and performance Engineering
exacerbated the extent of land requisition. Especially in our land requisition system and the cadre appraisal system is not very good circumstances, some local officials over-ambitious, the pursuit of performance, regardless of the actual situation
blindly and a lot of land requisition.
2 Current Problems in resettlement of landless peasants
2.1 The existing resettlement of short-term losses and inequities. At present, the farmers lost their land, the major settlement there are several ways: the currency to fend for themselves after resettlement, land requisition unit or the original collective economic organizations, and the current placement of the land in some areas are being explored for social security placement. At present, the number of these settlements have suffered different degree.
2.1.1 Currency placement, often have two drawbacks, one placed different standards. As governments at all levels to develop standards for land compensation to land-use as an important frame of reference, according to road construction, water conservancy and protection, corporate sites, commercial housing development and other channels in different areas, leaving large differences in compensation for the farmers, or even several times, causing strong resentment among the farmers. Second, a one-time compensation is limited, after all, once depleted, or used improperly spent in advance, if the stay at home, nor the land to provide means of subsistence farming, then the landless peasants to maintain their livelihood is very difficult. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
2.1.2 land units as well as the original collective economic organizations, job placement, in the short term is indeed a manifestation of landless peasants have been in employment, such as security, cleaning, Paul Green, etc., but the work tends to be unstable, income is also uncertain , depending on land requisition unit or the economic benefits
of the original collective economic organizations may be, once the land requisition unit or the original collective economic organizations themselves unsustainable, then the same group of landless farmers without a livelihood.
2.1.3 The resettlement of land for social security, which means there are some difficult problems, mainly: First, before the introduction of new approaches to the resettlement of landless peasants the interface between the local availability of financial resources
to bear. Second, compensation for land requisition for social security is to achieve self-balanced and Sustainable Development
, will give the next government of the larger hidden debt; 3 is due to the different land uses make different levels of compensation and finally embodied in the individual's social security benefits, on how to determine whether we can achieve a relatively fair; 4 is to ensure that landless peasants of social security funding sources, may increase the cost of business space, will this affect the business environment for investment.
2.2 Farmers lost ground after the jobs no one to turn Currently, there are skills of farmers in rural areas, as well as a higher Education
level have received the appropriate skills training of farmers, has long been to find a job, while the vast majority of low literacy levels in order to planting industry, though there is no work experience and skill or age too large farmers simply can not find a job. Due to lack of employment and entrepreneurial capacity, landless peasants in a rest on its laurels after the state, the future life of highly volatile.
2.3 The lack of social security after the farmers lost land as the land is not only the production and means of subsistence farmers, but also bear the social security function of the farmers. The current approach to the resettlement of landless peasants often did not take full account of pension, employment, Medical
care and other social security issues
, therefore, once the land has been requisitioned, farmers have lost their basic survival of life the bottom line, farmers without land, employment, no post, no copies of social security living in urban edge, a new urban vulnerable groups.
3 resettlement of landless peasants there to solve problems Countermeasures
3.1 compatible with China's national conditions, establish a low level of landless peasants the principles of the social security system. With the development of urbanization, landless peasants will gradually be urban residents. Landless peasants in the establishment of specific measures of social security, we must pay attention with the urban social security system of the docking, as the economy develops to a certain degree of time to the establishment of urban and rural integrated social security system. On the land the farmers have already reached retirement age, directly into the old-age security system on a regular basis to receive pension payments until they die. For the land at the time of working age persons, the leading policy is to promote their employment, employment by urban workers after the approach to the implementation of social security.
3.2 The establishment of landless peasants and their sources of funding social security regulation. Compared with the situation of landless peasants to establish a social security system, the source of funding is the core issue. To solve the problem of landless peasants, the key is to properly solve the livelihood problems of landless peasants to solve the worries of the villagers villages in the city is the key to the appropriate social security to raise funds. Landless peasants in the social security fund is used to maintain the basic living of landless peasants, the departments should make the funds promptly and fully allocated to the local fund special account in the financial sector. The use and payment of funds by the local labor and social security departments, and expenditure lines and special financial accounts management, and a separate establish accounts, earmarking may not transfer, diversion, or withheld, misappropriated.
3.3 strengthen the function of local government to guide the employment of landless peasants to establish government-led social security key. Landless peasants to address job security to worry about the most effective way. Most of landless peasants a lack of knowledge, skills, employment difficulties in large, plus although they have long been engaged in agricultural labor, but in cities around the huge revenues, they are unwilling to find a job. To this end, the government should carry out the implementation of active employment promotion policies, any persons within the working age may enter the labor market, enjoy a free job training, Career
counseling, career guidance and other services. After the retention will be part of the land requisition land, the village committee can take advantage of this part of the land lease, or build their own industries to provide employment opportunities for the villagers. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
3.4 for the landless farmers with legal aid. Landless peasants belonging to a new type of socially disadvantaged groups, their low status, economic capacity is limited, in the land acquisition process and other social activities, when their legal rights have been violated, it is necessary to provide a variety of ways for the landless peasants of legal aid, their can be and equal enjoyment of the right to Administrative
relief to establish smooth channels. Enable farmers to land exercise of the rights are effectively protected by law.
3.5 to strengthen social security, to reduce the size of landless poor into local administrative cadres of the performance evaluation
. Urbanization is to solve China's 'three rural issues' fundamental way, the state is continuously push forward the process of urbanization in rural areas. In this process, to reform the local administrative cadres performance evaluation of the evaluation system, not just the pursuit of GDP
indicators, should be to expand coverage of social security, jobs increased, reducing the size of landless poor and other Social Welfare
undertakings as a local administrative cadres of the important performance evaluation indicators, through the system of examination, so that attention to disadvantaged groups as local administrative leadership for the people to govern the most important task, in their official term into their values. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com