Papers Category:Culture Papers
- Population Problem Papers
Post Time:2011-7-17 11:24:00
Paper Keywords: population aging; pension system
Abstract: Based on China's aging population status and trends analysis, summarized the characteristics of China's aging population, perspective of population aging on pension system to bring the plight of proposed building and improvement of China's pension system concept .
1, the population caused by the retirement of the aging society, economic pressures Aging of the population, substantial increase in the dependency ratio of elderly population.
The current operation of the basic principles of social security, in the long-term stable population structure, the productive labor force, retirement costs will be borne the next generation of manufacturing workers. Clearly, the future elderly dependency ratio more substantial population increase will inevitably lead to the peak of its aging workforce is not productive and can not afford large-scale retirement costs of the elderly population, thus threatening the operation of the social security system.
Aging population, a substantial increase in social security expenses, which accounted for the proportion of national income will face a more substantial increase general trend showed that the combined costs of OECD countries the proportion of old-age security, from 1984 10. 3% up to 2040's 20.2 percent, that is double, pension expenses will only spend 20% of national income or more, if coupled with other social insurance programs, it is clear there will be more national income human aging caused by strong demand absorbed more worrying is that, as the "wave of white hair," the impact of this cost will continue to increase.
Regardless of the aging population dependency ratio of elderly population, impact, or rapid increase in social security costs, the final analysis, that is, the social security system is facing unprecedented challenges. The means by which to effectively absorb and disperse the pressure of old age security, said that China should pension system witch is a core issue to be resolved. how in the next period of time to adapt to the challenges of an aging population, will help build economic growth rather than hinder the social security system, to really establish a rapid economic growth and social security funds the interlinkages between the mechanisms, the creation of conditions for their social security system arrangement, is we are faced with a flood of "the wave of white hair," can do only choice.
2, old-age security system in response to population aging response
2.1 Construction of multi-level social pension insurance system
According to China's social security system, the construction and development of ideas, combined with Chinese characteristics, old-age insurance system in accordance with accountability and commitment to the subject methods include the following five levels. Family or self-protection level.
Family or their own self-protection is a national issue or by the family pension is directly responsible for the way its funds from family or personal savings. At this level, the family pension by the government to provide preferential policies as well as subsidies to maintain and enlarge the functions of family protection.
Level of government responsible for the Government is directly responsible for this level of the main system is the starting point for all the elderly to provide basic income protection, funding comes from taxes, the standard treatment but with the decoupling of wages linked to the price level, and with the average income of the whole community to improve and increase, at the same time, the government is responsible for the poverty relief system also covers the elderly poor. Government-led, shared responsibility, hierarchy The hierarchy led by the Government, employers and workers share the responsibility for payment. Unit is responsible level.
This level that the annuity or non-business units to provide for supplementary pension insurance, the Government encourages institutions to provide supplementary pension insurance, but will not interfere with business and other units to establish the autonomy of supplementary pension insurance, financed either All provided by the employer, can also be shared by employers and workers. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.commarket level.
The level of the market, free market transaction through to completion, is still essentially a matter of personal responsibility for themselves, but with family or self-protection than the market approach with social significance.
2.2 to extend the statutory retirement age, the implementation of flexible retirement system, the implementation of the promotion of labor and employment pension insurance system
China's current approach is a standard retirement age established in 1978: 60-year-old male workers, female workers 50 years old, female cadres and 55 years old, with life expectancy of people to constantly adjust and years of education increased, if the current retirement age reform, it will directly affect the individual's working life, thereby reducing the accumulation of pension funds, damage to intergenerational equity. the academic mainstream strategy is selected, "the first male and female, the small step in a gradual" to extend the retirement age mode, that is standard on the basis of the existing retirement age, starting in 2010 to improve women's retirement age, and then after 2015 to extend the retirement age for men, and ultimately to achieve by 2040 the retirement age of men and women age 65 In addition, some countries raising the retirement age also took an indirect approach, such as extending the insured to receive full pension age or length of service; reduce the amount of early retirees pensions; the implementation of flexible retirement system, these are also worth learning from.
2.3 make the individual accounts, pension funds should improve the aging of the population risks
The early days of New China, China's implementation of pay-as-style old-age security model, in 1995, China began to PAYG old-age insurance system with unified account the gradual shift mode, but in the process of implementing the system of individual accounts set up some empty accounts, many places will also be individual account funds used to pay current pensions, stealth debt year after year, many experts and relevant departments have also done related to estimates, the mainstream view is that the 3 trillion yuan. personal account The pension funds are funds management model, is the response to population aging is an important guarantee for improving the enthusiasm of individual workers have a significant role in promoting.
2.4 tap community resources, make full use of old resources to achieve the "old old rule"
The Chinese nation has always been a neighborhood tradition of mutual assistance in pension issues to pay attention to take advantage of this resource. Families with elderly family as a unit, a multi-family mutual aid consortium, set up endowment care networks, mutual help, the elderly can also develop a professional service organization, by specialized personnel to provide various services for the elderly, such as the establishment of community hospitals, elderly care nursing center, the elderly, counseling and health care, the elderly, legal advice, the elderly and the elderly dating recreation centers and other services, the real security for the elderly medical care, old music.
2.5 improve related policies, facilities
Pension reform, the reform of state-owned enterprises from the service, to become a socialist social security system reform and improve the important part, by a wide range of effects in addition to the above mentioned factors, we should also do other support services . Such as improving income statistics, the standard pay wage base, and expand the coverage of old-age security system, strict collection means to enhance the contribution rate, the adjustment of pension payment standards and narrow the gap between old-age pension insurance, etc. are also very important to the current work.
3, establish a new type of pension values, create a healthy old age security system
Aging of the population calls for old age security, but the old age social security is a complicated systematic project, its overall staffing needs of the elderly should be conceived in order to establish a relatively sound social security system in old age. Fundamentally speaking, the needs of the elderly population including old-age needs of the economy and daily life care needs and emotional needs of the exchange of spiritual solace, where the economy needs is the foundation of life care and spiritual comfort is an important part between them is intrinsically linked to the organic whole, mutual influence and interaction, indispensable and only these needs have been met, in order to make the elderly a sense of security and happiness, and really constitute a relatively complete old-age social security system. Links to Papers download http://eng.hi138.com