[Abstract] since the founding.
Papers Category:Culture Papers
- Population Problem Papers
Post Time:2011-6-14 16:35:00
China's agricultural economy has made considerable progress, both agricultural output per unit area, or have raised land productivity, but I imperfect, with the effect of the gradually emerging fertility policy, the rural population structure gradually changes from the objective requirements of the rural social security system must be adapted. This is the basis for sub-base to explore ways to improve the rural social security system in order to perfect the social security system in rural areas benefit.
[Paper Keywords] rural areas: population structure, social security, fertility policy
First, the status of the rural population structure
1. Large population size. Fifth Census results. The total population of our country l2.95 million, of which the total rural population of 63.91%. And the rural population will continue to expand the size of each of the rural population of nearly a thousand new people. Even if the current positive rural population growth model of "low birth rate, low mortality and low natural population growth rate" changes. However, due to population inertia. But a short time the rural population will continue to grow. With social and economic development, a huge rural population would have a huge demand on social resources. Have minimum living allowance, medical insurance, pension security and other issues
2. Quality of the population is low. Compared with urban residents. Whether physical health quality, ideological and moral qualities, or scientific and cultural qualities. Put to shame by the rural population of each index. The vast majority of farmers engaged in manual labor can only be dominated occupations. This is clearly contrary to the current building of new socialist countryside peasant quality requirements. The quality of the rural population needs to be improved.
3. Age structure. The current age structure of the basic characteristics of the rural population is the "two small, big in the middle." That the proportion of children and the elderly population small. A larger proportion of the population of working age, the guide for implementation of the policy of fertility and people's living standards to implement effective policies to improve the fertility of the total population to curb the growth momentum, decades of low fertility rate is currently raising our children the main reason for the rapid decline than the other, people's living standards, a substantial increase in life expectancy for the rural population and create the conditions for increasing the proportion of aging population. The current proportion of China's rural labor force higher, raising the rural population is relatively low.
4. Serious imbalance in sex ratio. China's population sex ratio imbalance has long been an indisputable fact, whether by age or sex ratio at birth sex ratio, this should be much larger than the 107, the highest value under normal circumstances.
Second, improve the rural social security system practical significance Compared with urban residents.
Farmers have been marginalized to the early days of New China, for example, in view of the special political and economic conditions and the heavy and light agriculture, non-priority development of heavy industry, a balanced development strategy. Farmers to support China's industrialization has been made great sacrifices. Up to now, farmers spend about 80% of social security expenditures account for only the total social security expenditures l1%. The total population of less than 20% of urban residents to social security expenditures accounted for 89% of the total expenditure of social security. Per capita of urban residents the opportunity to enjoy the social security of farmers in 32.36 times the current, improve the rural social security system is imminent.
1. Improve the rural social security is conducive to social stability. Rural population accounts for the vast majority of our population, improve the rural social security system conducive to the social stability and unity, for the construction of new socialist countryside to provide material and intellectual support.
2. Improve the rural social security system. Protection of subsistence farmers. Conducive to deepening rural economic reform. Only personal experience of the farmers to the pension, health care and other basic security benefits brought before the farmers from the root to rid itself of traditional values. Integration of rural resources in education, vocational training and so on. adapted from passive to active fighting. Alleviating Poverty, financed three rural construction. Achieve a virtuous circle. Promote the upgrading of industrial structure in rural areas. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
Third, the current social security system in China's rural problems
At present, China's rural social security system, the following problems:
1. Low level of social security. Small range. Narrow coverage .20 o4 years. Enjoy the rural minimum living of the rural population of 488 million people in 2006 to enjoy the rural population of the rural minimum living allowance for the l593 people. Coverage has indeed been a substantial increase, however, only 24.8% of the rural poor. This is just the minimum living allowance, if included in the rural health care and pensions, the ratio will be lower. In addition, the security level is very low At this stage, mainly in rural social security funds needed from the government and local budgets. May be due to various reasons, the Government's financial support can not meet the needs of rural social security, single source of social security funds. Some of the policies formulated by the state is difficult to put in place. Restricted the level of rural social security to improve.
2. Difficulties in financing social security funds. As mentioned earlier. China's social security funds are mainly dependent on government financial support. Although in recent years the state has increased investment in rural social security, but that does not satisfy the smooth operation of the rural social security system and development needs
3. Legal system is not perfect. Sound of rural social security laws and regulations in the rural social security system to ensure the orderly operation of the premise and the existing legal system of social security in rural areas lagged behind, as at present, apart from <<the beneficiaries work regulations>> a higher level of administrative regulations, the other had no clear legal provisions, China has not yet a formal regulations to standardize the operation of the rural social security system. In addition, weak implementation mechanisms, lack of legal accountability mechanisms is the current legal system is not the sound of a performance. Currently the most prominent misappropriation or diversion, retention behavior of social insurance funds are not effectively punished.
Fourth, measures to improve the rural social security system The above problems, combined with the reality of the rural population structure.
May proceed following the Rural Social Security System
1. To market. Have a choice to some large enterprises to participate in the strength of the rural social security to work, not only can ease the financial problems. Also involved in the competition to improve the quality of services in rural social security. Invigorate the rural social security operation mechanism, to make it transparent. Simple technology, a fundamental solution to the current low level of rural social security coverage narrow range of small structural contradictions.
2. Improve the relevant legal system. Accelerate the establishment of relevant legal system, virtually eliminating obstacles to run the rural social security system elements, severely punish the misappropriation, misuse, occupation of the wrongful act of special funds for rural social security. When dealing with matters related to uphold the law must be strictly enforced. Taking into account the short time the reality of the relevant legal system is not perfect, practical work, you should strengthen support and cooperation of other laws and regulations to construct multi-level monitoring body to ensure that rural social protection mechanism is functioning smoothly.
3. Responsible for the establishment of rural social security affairs administration. From the system to run social security system in rural areas of specialization. Its main functions include: first. Strengthening of rural social security department and other relevant departments coordination and cooperation: the second, depending on the circumstances, to develop unified and differentiated work in provinces and cities of rural social security policies, and the third, monitoring, feedback, improving social security in rural regions System: Fourth, do the publicity work of social security in rural areas: Fifth, financing, management and disposal of rural social security funds. Links http://eng.hi138.com
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