Look on from weddings and funerals ethics of Confucianism on the penetration of Tujia

Abstract: Although Confucianism for a long period of cultural influences on home soil is negligible, but still slowly permeated. Tujia areas Confucianism affect the economic and social development, especially in the Tujia weddings and funerals.

Keywords: weddings and funerals, ethics, Tujia culture


In Hunan, Hubei, Guizhou, Chongqing and a piece of land on the border, meandering between the mountains, have lived with a wise, brave, simple people, they are Tujia these hardworking men and women and from the gurgling mountain stream valley Diaojiao Lou with exquisite beauty between sunrise and sunset, and they withstood the baptism of a certain age, creating a magnificent national culture worthy of these profound cultural connotation and Wuling Mountains wonderful natural scenery seamless , just as described by Weng Tao fascinating paradise that exudes a unique charm irresistible. thousands of years, they have the same as the valley from the open since the defeat the orchids, not for outsiders to know.

However, when the history of the junction of the river in heavy waves off when closed this ancient nation there is no doubt accepted the new blowing air, the nation's integration into the new ideas of its limbs, and without a trace into one as the head of China's traditional Confucian thought so quietly into the river among the Tujia culture.

Swept the world since the Qin Dynasty, four returnees one, the land will be integrated into a unified political landscape among the feudal dynasty, while when the Qin Wang Li Han, the Han culture as the core of Confucianism began to pass closed Tujia mountainous areas, although Confucianism for a long period of time the impact of the Tujia culture is negligible, but still slowly permeated from the implementation of the Qing Dynasty Qing Dynasty flow, Confucian culture has a huge potential for its full impact Tujia areas while the mode of transmission devaluation school education.

Tujia areas in Qin and Han dynasties gradually with school education, especially the Western Han Dynasty established the "ouster 100 Confucianism", the Han rulers continue to Confucian influence Tujia areas. Tujia school education from the Eastern Han Dynasty, has been before the founding of New China, its teaching is basically dominated by Confucianism.'s Feudal era, the basic idea of ​​Tujia education has two aspects: examination were admitted, Lide Li-yen, personnel training rule , moral values, enslaving the people to maintain the feudal rule. Tujia areas of Confucianism in the widespread profound impact on the Tujia economic and social development. The basic idea of ​​the Tujia contemporary education also had a profound impact: most of the contemporary Tujia how many people out of school transport as the main goal of the gate, long-term oriented education, in fact, admitted by the traditional examination of the impact of long-term Confucian moral education indoctrination, coupled with small-scale peasant farming culture, but also make the formation of some of the Tujia people, such as self-sufficient, heavy agricultural restrain commerce and other backward psychological accumulation.

Confucianism is China's long feudal society, the official ideology, it formed the "three bonds" (Jun Chen Gang, the father of the child classes, husband wife gang "permanent five" (benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, believed to be the core of the ethical concept is the core of Confucianism is the core of Chinese traditional ethics areas. "benevolence" and that is how to deal with interpersonal adjustment, and the "gift" is "benevolence" of the specific performance of the Qing Qing Dynasty stream, Tujia areas some of the feudal Confucian bureaucrats have to establish a new system of ethics to regulate the Tujia people's words and deeds and thoughts. Tujia have a prefect of the region following notice: "Man Ping the five permanent members, every move Jie rules." poetry after a long time and local officials led by Tujia people's weddings and funerals and other rituals, Confucianism was deeply marked by the stigma of ethics.

Tujia's marriage in "Qing Dynasty flow" is relatively free before. Unmarried men and women just love each other, you can get married after a toast to testify. Without any ceremonial restrictions, men and women do not any money, wedding program is very simple. load, said: "As for weddings, funerals, also frugal does not extravagant." Back then, exchanges between young men and women home soil is relatively free, even using "his daughter will" to song teaser, set for life private. "toast is located in the mountains , where farming and out, male and female peers, no arrests affinities, roads meet, to songs for the media, although the pro-husband present, nothing to flinch. "But the flow of the Qing Dynasty, the Confucian ethical code Tujia areas affected by the impact, not only limited interaction between men and women , both arranged marriages instead of Tujia old customs. recorded "old man over, and not trespassing in the door of the women's old or more, and not good at out the door, set at the ceremony, so do not have the strict internal and external." lie in " all without any words, no light of all of the female population, the woman should say, that will interest the ring, not so with the man sitting in the same, with propriety about their body, long accustomed to, from Seoul dignified and carry on. "visible was already relatively strict propriety. Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com

The simple innocence of marriage customs, etiquette ways by the impact and influence, free marriage has also been the shackles of the feudal ethical code, infected with "Duke Six Man" traces Nanhunnvjia is regulated by "orders of parents to enrich," emphasizes "perfect match". "strips of bamboo door door panel door on the trap door" in the courtiers, toast, people became insurmountable gentry of rules and prohibitions. "cloudless sky does not rain, underground free media do not get married," seems to be Needless to question doctrine, so even if the civilian population in the free love marriage, on the surface "Meishuozhiyan" is also indispensable. official had ordered: "the beginning of humanity men and women, not married ... and then your surname with the media about the two notification to understand, according to the polishers at home ... ... This ceremony is also scheduled to "." As for the election-law, grandparents, parents, presided over it, do not have to ask whether the woman's wish. or woman shameless, I said do not want to, we might never punished according to law. an appointment scheduled with , Mo life change. "In short," man's first marriage ", Tujia people for the" do family, and following generations' love affair, very carefully, very carefully. The basic performance of a ritual deeply Confucian culture "gift" of the traditional, Confucian to marriage as a "gift of the" proposed marriage to the married from the process must follow the "Six Man", Nace asked the name, Najib, Na Zheng, please view the pro-greet. The program can not be confused, not relief. Tujia The marriage procedure is basically followed the Confucian ritual system, but after a long accumulation of a nation's customs, still stubbornly show their unique characteristics. Tujia young men and women, and always love the combination of freedom, to build a happy happy the family marriage, as their pursuit of the ideal, Tujia lot of songs, are filled with the freedom of marriage of the spirit of pursuit, a strong voice burst out there song as evidence: "Eighteen-year-old girl Lang, every day hold feet to go to bed. If the laws are not afraid of curse, kick kicking you out of bed. "" Seventeen-year-old proper spring, with not a small doctor's wife, played matchmaker harm the heart, cry cry days to come, "these songs are expressed their sense of resistance, talk to voice their desire for freedom.

Confucian always attached importance to the funeral, the funeral, especially parents funeral, is seen as critical event. "Mourning the death to the funeral," the formation of a strict and complete the ritual. Tujia people's funeral, a less complicated, but There are also many pay attention to its basic content is still the Confucian ritual. Qing Dynasty flow before the custom of the Tujia areas cremation, funeral ceremony presided over by the old chieftain, and very simple. Qing Dynasty flow, the cremation custom was abolished, universal implementation of burial , and strictly limited powers toast, toast funeral replaced by the priests.

Tujia's funeral, more attention to the elderly and the elders, young people are more casual. After death, the deceased's eldest son or daughter (no children were allocated to other juniors to the wells to take a fresh boxes of tea or a bamboo water bath to the dead after the Heat, then put on life shroud and red shoes, a white waist to be tied (by the deceased at the age of one year old one, with the door on the kang room, his face white cover sheet paper, a tripod chest pressure lid, feet point the supernatant oil lamps. At this time, the deceased slept in bed sick in the crossroads outside the house burned grass. slept in the dead of disease are covered through the clothes to be laundry would be the middle of the coffin on the main room, from seven to nine to take the neighbor to the fire pit ashes scattered in the coffin, covered with parchment, on encoffining, to be read after the family seal of the deceased Takao dutiful daughter, dutiful son Xiao Sun, are to mourning, close relatives who want to wear a white linen cloth turban, wear do not attach the buttons to the white cloth gown with knot, called filial clothing. Xiao Pa to continuous wear for three years. dead son buried the dead after three months, not shaved hair, to table grief in "Qing Dynasty flow" before the funeral from the toast and these are no doubt the most important penetration of the Confucian "filial piety" concept. "Qing Dynasty flow" to priests after the open and funeral. bier the dead generally three to seven days to stop up the mountain, located in the main room in the hall, which within a few days to choose a good day for the "Cremation Day" at the funeral, memorial to the dead butcher for slaughtering during the day to be priests or old soil Division "end solution" and "salvation of souls." the funeral, the adjacent Walled young men, voluntarily carried the coffin up the hill. hanging open during the night by singing the song lyrics most of the filial piety of the deceased's life dealing with people, song lyrics and more from Confucianism historical stories, such as <<mother scolded Xu Cao>> <<Yuemucizi>> <<Meng Mu moved three>> "Chung Meng cry Bamboo>> <<Wang Xiang lay on the ice>> etc. faithful virtue and the lyrics highlight the The theme not only praised the dead, but also with the Confucian concept of righteousness education Chunghsiao test induced the living.

In addition to weddings and funerals than in other aspects, such as interpersonal communication, Confucianism is the people's daily lives must follow heaven, and, with Confucianism on the overall infection Tujia areas, Tujia society, Chunghsiao , charity, justice, courage, hard work, helping others, so always run through youth education, and become deposited on the Tujia traditional psychological consciousness, a strong family tradition, Walled wind and society. Share in free download http://eng.hi138.com

Of course, in many aspects, to the core of Confucian ethics as family ethics of the impact of soil is the most dominant. Things are often two sides, in the Confucian culture of the Tujia culture positive and progressive impact of the time, no doubt will bring some negative effects. Tujia people in the socialist modernization drive today, carefully sort out the traditional ethics resources, building of socialist spiritual civilization of great practical significance.

References

<<Tujia cultural studies>> and so on.

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Ethics Papers