Novelist James had a slight exaggeration to say that: 'at least five million kinds of ways to tell a story.' Each about the way will evoke readers who a unique read the response and situational effects, so how about directly determines this effect can be achieved. "narratologists tell us the same story can have a different narrative should study how the story is described in the research literature, narrative for the work it is very important, Zhang Jie's works in The narrative form their own uniqueness.
1. Zhang Jie's novel is mostly a combination of an omniscient external focusing narrative and characters internal focusing narrative in concrete works, the author always flexible depending on the contents of a different narrative. Fundamentally novel home what narrative point of view is right or wrong approach, but the choice of narrative point of view, for the proper expression of the author's narrative intentions is very important.
<< Love >> readers have been able to cause controversy can not be forgotten. There is a lot of narrative perspective. Novel is written in first person perspective, works and our Republic the same year "begins, began to talk about" I "encountered problems, a 30-year-old girl with a good physique and handsome face of the young man to pursue, but I do not know is not the marrying him, "I" brings me: "When he became my husband, I also become his wife, we can turn the wife and the husband's responsibility and obligation to bear in the end it? might be able to, because of the legal and moral tightly we are tied together. If we only comply with the legal and moral to bear each other's responsibilities and obligations, that is how sad ah! then, there is no more solid than the legal and moral, to something more solid contact us together? "" I "has been turned into a love thinker, not just a young girl being in love. novel's intent is very obvious, is to represent an ideal of love through the "I" of thinking. To further demonstrate this ideal, the novel is not followed by narrative "I" is to marry the suitors Qiaolin, away narrative "my mother's story, in order to show that" I love the attitude and position as a mother, "I did not own story to tell his daughter," my understanding of the mother is gradually showing, novels borrowed from the "I" bits and pieces of memory and mother's death left the diary of this together to complete the mother's story. "not positivism or psychological sense, but rather in the sense of narrative logic, a different look, and see different material turned to the other side, to make the character not the same. "described in the diary is the first person," I "mother's memories narrative is also a first-person, two first-person narrative effect on the mother's story is different, the diary is real, it is also sporadic, "I" on the mother's feelings of psychological Tracing a traceable guess with a thinking means The novel is a both open and limited veiled narrative effect, giving the reader a large space to think through in first person perspective caused.
The narrator in the first person "I" to tell a story, giving a real sense, lead the reader not only to believe her, and an understanding of and sympathy for her behavior. "Little is known about the mother thing, The novel uses the restricted narrative "I" only through the scattered bits of memories and letters to guess the mother's emotional experience, but because of the mother's love itself is a fragment-triggered their love moral censure precisely caused by such a vacancy, the novel does not complete the process of rendering loving lead to novel has a very strong emotional concentration but traces of some conceptualization, the novel is full of controversial. Zhang Jie personal stories and novels written by event compared easily argue that the novel is actually written by Zhang Jie own emotional reality Conclusion psychological fiction novel technique of writing the modification of the story into the story of "I" and "my mother", "special nature is undoubtedly caused by a tendency of modern writers: writers used the method of self-observation, his' self 'is split into many' part of the self, the result is to make his own spiritual life, conflicting ideas in several main characters who embodies. "this novel decomposition strategy of get rid of to write their own embarrassment, however, the reader's eyes are sharp, caused controversy after the release of the novel that readers considered" write her own suspicion of still not completely get rid of .
Zhang Jie's novel is often manifested in an "evaluation of reality", the stories, always interspersed with the narrator of the characters or events of the narrative language often colored glasses, which led to Zhang Jie novels are always full of sympathy for women the omniscient outside the focus narrative always coincides focusing narrative and characters form the text means that the women described by women, with a strong sense of women based.
>> << Ark Inscription wrote: "You will be exceptionally unfortunate, because you are a woman -" This sentence is not only to understand the eye of the novel's title, and lay the foundation for the tone of the narrative of three women is unfortunate, this unfortunate outset have been doomed, the novel does not specifically tell readers of this unfortunate how caused, but focus described to them how hard it was. novel is omniscient narrative style outside the focus, the main voice of the novel is narrator's voice, the narrator is standing on the female side of the narrative, when describing their misfortunes, from time to time publish their own view of "justice" From time to time, to describe the character's perspective, narrative, narrative event, the following is a section of the novel:
The Jing Hua force suddenly opened the door of the unit.
Oh, him! And white on the mountain! This elegant invaders.
Silver-gray summer dress, white shoes of hollow hair unlike the hippies so long, can not so short - copy files shriveled and tasteless little civil servants like sitting in an office all day. (<< Ark >>
This is a scene from the description of complex mountain by Jing Hua vision looked, "gentle invaders", "shriveled and tasteless civil servants, with an obvious vilify imply. Novels take the focus within the figures, the narrator and the Jing Hua emotional position. then look the following paragraph: "In such a morning Liuquan, Jinghua Gang waking up from a nightmare, the mood has not been calm, white on mountain they brazenly violated them." paragraph narrative through argumentative word "unbridled" to show that the narrative stance, with Liuquan, Jing Hua feelings consistent narrative undisguised emotional stance is also reflected in the novel talk paragraphs, when the narrator not only act as a role in storytelling, but also to act as a fact that the role of commentator. Characters in the novel is unfortunate, but described their sympathy, and they understand the truth in hand tone.
They do not know love this stuff can disappear when the common life of the long-term, and finally lift the layer to temporarily camouflage face veil, while real, is not a good soul exposed, they do not know the love This is something neither like melon, like the eggplant half rotten, rotten that the half cut the other half can eat. love is a corresponding, as long as the party lost the emotional love itself is not complex exist. (<< Ark >>
During this discussion the word "they" refers to those "world" narrative and "they" explore love, contains the meaning is clear, that is, by exploring the "they" understand the novel three divorced woman.
So had << emerald >> outside perspective and within the perspective of combining narrative, narrative focus point conversion between the North River, Lu and Zeng children. Novel interception of a cross-section, the contradictions in North River, Lu children when the hands of the left Wei, vice, Lu North River is left Wei's wife, Zeng child is left Wei former lover, has a complex emotional entanglements between the three had memories of the novels in the North River, Lu and Zeng children start slowly, after supper, Lu North River on so motionless oblique lying on the sofa, alone myself contemplating her mind "novels written by Lu North River thoughts down, a few memories of each other group then, forming a complete story. narrator is omniscient and omnipotent, but specific narrative, fiction restrictive narrative from time to time, such as in the discussion Zeng children into the microcode establishment group, this paragraph narrative text: "Who Ken out speech Zeng children? addition to Lu North River, here no one knew her, know her, but after she graduated, Lian Lu North River only hearsay. " Next, with a short brief text introduces of Zeng children known general background. Limit the narrative below conversion narrative focus was foreshadowing Zeng children own story, only in her memories slowly to get Expand "appropriate control of the characters' inner perspective can also help regulate the narrative distance in everyday life, we tend to sympathize with a knowledge of its inner proportional to; him the more to ingratiate themselves with you, you may more sympathy for him. Similarly, the omniscient narrator show more of a character's inner life, the distance between the reader and this figure is likely to be the shorter, otherwise there may be more wide. readers read by Zeng memories a story so that the children naturally and characters unwittingly closer psychological distance, which is the author expected.
Zhang Jie's novel always the memories of the characters and the psychological process of revealing events intertwined, always jumping and downs of human psychology, the appropriate use of outside perspective free the viewpoint to switch between the different characters, showing the effect of a psychological realism. <word> at the beginning: "Despite the novel can be a hundred, or even more the way begins, but I still use a half-century ago ..." This what the narrative form of carefully weigh the novel's first chapter is concerned with the plot Wu as crazy fiction narrative in order: "Wu is crazy but people talk for a long time", "According to her some of my friends said, "This is the use of outside perspective, and soon the novel viewpoint Go Wu for body:" Whenever I think of these, her eyes on diffuse from a deep dark, chaotic ". By Wu as the spirit of the mad, the novel jumps to Hu Bingchen body: "and Hu Bingchen contacts are very different in the case of Wu as ignorant, her tongue is the first to recognize this chapter of end: "This is her nearly three decades of relations and Hu Bingchen, even if they divorce, unavoidably had to face the situation - never in the House of Flying Daggers." novel in a few thousand words in length , the viewpoint converted several times, so that the novel takes on a very strong psychological style. novel below in the description of the hundreds of thousands of words, but also continue to convert the viewpoint Hubing Chen, Wu Wei Ye Lianzi, Gu jumps between the stories of youthful et al. switch narrative point of view, the continuity of the event need indecisive together to understand of using this description of the way the intention is clear, the author does not emphasize speaking to give readers an interesting story, the author is more concerned about the spiritual journey story carried by characters, describes the main characters emotional reflection. << no word >> extremely appropriate use of such a combination of internal and external psychological narrative form, is very good to explore the psychological novel, insert a large number of letters, diaries, will commence in the thoughts of the characters within the different scenarios of issuing the characters their own voice. omniscient narrator in the novel from time to time on the characters in the novel, Event commentary, the story deepening novel also lends With the "polyphonic novel" means that, this is the author pursuit of "Symphony" effect.
2. "The structure of the novel with involving characters, plot the layout of the processing environment, the division of the paragraphs
And the links between them and binding, and so on, these must be by writers of hard creative labor, to be clever weaving form an angry absorbed organic whole. "Can not do without a good structure in the form of good fiction. Accordance with horse Tomasevski, Propp, Wallace Martin narratology researchers view them from many common story narrative structure. numerous stories out different narrative structure reflects the specific cultural or psychological, philosophical the connotation of the structure of the novel contains both a novel combination of elements, and also reflects the the novelist performance center different and has a different narrative structure, based on the performance of different center, traditional novels and modern fiction, plot the novel, the character of the novel of the points of the psychological novel. From this point of view, most of Zhang Jie's novel is a character of fiction or psychological novel.
Zhang Jie's novel, the author rarely used alone to narrate the story of a character, often involving different characters, different events were launched, these events or interrelated, or independent, but they are surrounded by a common theme, the formation of a Zhang Jie 'unique fragmentary way combination of narrative structure. Zhang Jie's major works, such as << Ark >> << the tangram >> << emerald >> << him what disease >> << heavy wings >> << only a the sun >>, <<. com >>, << know >>, << soul to stray >> << word >> use this structure.
Zhang Jie comparison of the different stories of people consciously intertwined, and its meaning is not self-evident, is the fate of contrast between the characters, to express their emotions stand between the characters or the pros and cons of comparison, or backed each other to jointly complete the novel theme connotation. >> << Ark of the three women are unfortunate, the novel structure, expand the story of three characters. Jing Hua's story, liuquan story, the story of Leung Sin is its own, but are very similar: the same married the wrong man, and unbearable divorce; same after the divorce the subject of discrimination, being blocked, the same self-esteem self-reliance, was forced male three people who live together, they mutual help and interdependence, the main story again cross. narrative point of view from one character to another character, the novel is taken montage conversion group then. novel take clips clip combo structure good to show the reality of women's survival novel by the mouth of narrative, sympathy and understanding given to them the story of three characters is like a tree three bifurcation, independently, and services in general theme.
Heavy wings. "<< Zhang Jie's first novel, the novel's central contradiction is to commence around the" reform and anti-reform, but the clues of the novel is long, and its structure is similar to the tree structure, the main line is clear, minor lush. Britannica 16 chapters around the reformist of Zheng Zaiyun, Chen Yongming expand the ink in the sixth chapter, only a fifth, six, seven, eight, ten, eleven, thirteen, fifteen chapters around the reformists and The wind sent the characters struggle between the space occupied by less than half of the novel. addition to the main line, the novel has spent a great deal of space to the performance of the family relationships of the characters. "model couple" living Zheng Ziyun, and Xia Zhujun play, as leaves Zhiqiu, free love between the single woman's misfortune and suffering, emotional entanglement between Wan Qun Fang Wen Xuan, Yu-Ying Liu and Wu Kuo-tung the poor couple sorrow, Chen Yongming and his wife Yu Liwen deep feelings between Mo Zheng and Zheng Yuan Yuan The novel also created a large number of secondary characters, it took a lot of ink to the performance of the secondary characters living world. If the Ministry of Industry Wangfang Liang, Fang Wen Xuan He Jiabin Ho Ting Ji constant full, Xiao Yi, car factories Yang Xiaodong, He Guodong, Wu Bin, Ge Xinfa, Lv Zhimin and other people. The story of these secondary characters form the structure the mainline figures of fiction against the background of the story, expanding the content of the novel's content.Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
Expand multi-line, massive, Zhang Jie novel group then the way of thinking of the characters, the story.Zhang Jie always write the stories of several characters in the same work, through a common theme to form a multi-character, multi-story Platter group access structure, which is a typical traditional Chinese novel "cavalier perspective" wording, the classic novel << Scholars << Three Kingdoms >> << Water Margin "and other novels are such structural practices , which implies the concept of an art, is the counterpart of the traditional aesthetic psychological structure embodies the common understanding of the Chinese writers of the laws of art. Chinese painting is often no fixed point of view, based on the author's intention, the venue for King, the scene camera's own screen. Such as the Northern Song inNorthern famous paintings << Qingming Festival >> "cavalier perspective on the use of "approach, the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty Bianliang lively scene in the city, outside the city, a multi-level, three-dimensional display in front of an audience. Shi Changyu << Water Margin >> structural features: similar to the scroll of Chinese painting and Chinese gardens, each local has its relative independence, is a complete self-contained unit of life, between the local and closely Goulian, transition slightly artifacts, make you convert unconsciously space. however partial and local United decorated by no means is the sum of the number, but the convergence of life, all the local synthesis of an organic global cultural connotation of this structure, Mr. Yang Yi concluded: "This touches a basic principle: opposition by the Chinese narrative total structure interaction special can be interlinked, then in such confrontation phase or task relative to the core, there must be some kind of interdependence and integration between things, or borrow a foreign language, there is some kind of 'tension field' This is The so-called 'Chih' pursuit of the aesthetic and philosophical realm. within the middle and outer poles, which is China's many narrative principle of the depths of the unspoken principle.
Heavy wings << >> content of the novel there is a deep-seated antagonism structure. General struggle to write between reformists and wind sent, the character is divided into two factions, the personality of the character contrast, the formation of the novel dominant tendency as Tianshou Cheng Zheng Ziyun, He Guodong and Yang Xiaodong, SONG Ke and Chen Yongming, Ji Heng and Xiao Yi, Feng efficiency first and He Jiabin and other people's personalities are mutually exclusive opposites of: the former is the old school, vulgar relationalism, after The reformist, typical idealist. they increase the dramatic conflict between the characters in this radically antagonistic personality. composite structure formed characters the story is not a simple repetition, but the role of mutual cf example, < Unfortunately, in stark contrast. Tangram >> in Yuan and Yin eyebrow happiness and Jinnai Wen Tan light bucket between Zeng the child and Lu North River << the emeralds >> in the spiritual realm the contrast also common manifestations of Zeng noble character of the child. "opposed by the total structure interaction special can be interlinked together to complete a novel theme camp structure between these characters as Yang Yi said.
The combination of fragmentary structure, not only a structure, but also the concept of an art. Pointed out the writer's emotional tendencies, it shows that the authors prefer multi-faceted "show", not just "about" the reality of life. < <Ark >> combination is the story of three women, the << the tangram >> combination is the fate of two different families, << the emeralds >> Love grievances entanglement between three people, << wordless> > is the number of men and the woman's story of mesh interwoven, the common theme is the exploration of love problems and concerns. << >> what disease "he was referring to, in which both women , there are men, they are different industries in different identity, a different story, but common spiritual reality confrontation together. << only one Stories of the sun >> almost irrelevant. The story montage of the group then commenced to tell a Chinese delegation to visit abroad as the core, depicting a group of mercenary comic like. com >> performance is the story of a group of artists, and its events are slightly different, but common greed and the ugly face of deception by the name of art. Depending on the content, in combination, also slightly The. << Ark >> only one sun >> << what his disease >> ". com >> basically horizontal combination of parallel relationship. >> << heavy wings <wordless >> << know >> << soul is used to "pay more attention to the combination of stray between events The relationship intertwined to form a ring or mesh structure.
<< Know >> Ye Kai the beginning of the story, Ye Kai Wen pondering the end of the story, to form a ring. Jinwen Qian's story, the story of Jin Wenxuan Angela's story, the story of Tony, Sima Nan wind story Expand Sima Nan Wind emotional story is the mysterious picture cards, the novel contains so many characters, through hundreds of years of history, ultimately revealing not just a picture that contains the mysterious imply, but through Love the narrative of many characters, the formation of an integrated joint force, they have some kind of legendary love, these stories to the performance of a novel of the mystery of love and the life and fate of thinking. novel with a lot of rhetorical questions to ask the love questioning life, have a strong sense of destiny.
Zhang Jie the novel fragment modular structure implied a the Zhang Jie novel creation avenue of always trying to point to the more universal significance of meaning and value. To Zhang Jie concern is not the novel itself readability, but the spirit of the characters plight write << word >> talking about her novel the reader may not be a lot in the the Zhang Jie novel, the narrative always overflow the story, to talk of intervention in the story appears, this also shows that Zhang Jie emotional tendency of the novel is far more important than her story, using fragments combination of multi-line narrative is fit the need of this expression of Zhang Jie, through a combination of story, Zhang Jie completed the tour of "the wandering of the soul".
3. Novelist Wang Anyi, modern novel set Metaphor writing and traditional fiction novel under a little bit dead effort superimposed the the neoclassical writers not technology advocates, not try to give you security buttons located suspense, making a clever the things that they not engage in these, they alone dead effort, things written to the extreme, love, hate wrote extreme things written to the extreme is not easy, there is not a thing to help things , for example, is not a ladder we climb, but the bricks one a pine high is himself or herself. these books I introduce all his dead effort barrier bricks ...... << September fable> > << History of the Soul>, you will see that they are using a little tricky. << the soul history >> find a substitute << Fable of September >> designed a fable. "resurrection >> << Wuthering Heights >> "John Christopher >> are in desperate effort. they do not set up some things make you easy to operate, or alternative to, or a symbol or a metaphor, it is to write love on write how how love, this love is toward extraordinary, for the addition, a step-by-step to add the phrase, not to multiplication so for its story, you can not generalize, you must read it step by step, step by step in order to understand the mortal love is how to come to love Superman. "This view, Zhang Jie's novel is not the wording of the neoclassical writers, but" point skills of writing, specifically, in the novel consciously set some something symbolic or abstract concepts.
Zhang Jie's novel describes the event there is a reality that, but the final novel of the implication is far beyond the event itself, into a spirit level, a generalization of the S & P, which first of all thanks to Zhang Jie refining novel title. << Ark >>, << Tangram >> << emerald >> << word >> << only a sun >> << know >>, << soul is used to wandering> such as the title of the novel have to enhance the function of the novels ideological implication. a Comment << Ark >> title: under the 'Ark and joiner pitch Bliss' - << Han Ban Gu Chuan >> "entitled There is also a subtitle: "- you will be exceptionally unfortunate, because you are a woman -" Ark "This title is very meaningful," Han >> "Ark and joiner pitch Bliss" is a harmonious scenery depiction of the boat and duck side by side, where the "Ark" cruise. << Bible >> "Ark" refers specifically to Noah's Ark, the flood comes, you can load your own family and large and small livestock. "Ark" from China's history books, but also with the West to save the disaster & ldqu
o; Noah's Ark "mean to this title and the subtitle of the novel, its meaning is very clear: being a woman is, unfortunately, to save the woman's Ark Where? kind of men and women to live in harmony ideal How can we achieve? see three unfortunate woman read the novel, the reader, they suffer setbacks in life, contact the title and the content of the story readers will be more profound understanding of the novel rescue means that women and their gender harmony life longing. "tangram the >>'s title is also symbolic. the Tangram this is one of China's ancient puzzle puzzles the seven simple planks can spell over 1600 kinds of different graphics, contains a combination of wisdom and skills Novel by telling Jin Naiwen, Yin eyebrow two women with different marital hopes of marriage is a combination of the "jigsaw puzzle" meant, a combination of how well with contingencies. >> << emerald under the heading of a comment: emerald, a rare emeralds. "novel" emerald "was further explained hero Carl, children find the corresponding own birthday years from the to a << horoscope >> birthstone: emerald, infinite of love. "Carl, the child's reaction was" like a bullet hit, suddenly to bow our heads "This shows that the emerald hero character, fate has a corresponding emerald simple selfless, the quality of the special situation symbolize the spiritual character of the hero, Carl, the ill-fated children, had suffered, but like Our Lady of perseverance and personality realm beyond the psychological barrier, frank face life. << wordless >>, << know >> << soul >> are used to wandering spirit "imaginary title", they summarized the spirit of the story behind the reader after reading the story, by title the understanding of the deep implication of the story.
Based on the Jacobson book view >> << linguistic basis, the narrative text type two: a metaphorical text, one is to turn the metaphor type text. Realistic works are mostly based on metonymy principle to organize text, romanticism, symbolism works are mostly based on the principle of metaphor to construct a text. "metaphor, by its very nature, poetry, a narrative works through metaphor to enrich and expand and deepen text's poetic connotation. "are many masterpieces of modern literary history through the metaphor to expand the connotation of its own, such as the << siege >> The moral is brought about by the" siege "imagery" siege "imagery from the West borrowed, borrowed the characters in the novel Shenming and the mouth of the Miss Su explains the meaning of the "siege". siege imagery to create a novel edge-fiction hero Fang Hongjian life into a "siege" including the life Besieged, interpersonal siege, emotional siege hero Fang Hongjian emotional "siege" its most basic interpretation of the meaning, but the novel has gone beyond Fang's emotional confusion itself, it is the expression of the eternal human spirit Dilemma: outside the city who want to rushed, bailing out of the city, the marriage is so true of life, this novel by love problems rise to the universal problems of life, greatly enriched the novel implication layer. "siege "Imagery is a question eyes of our understanding of the novel, but also readers like <Besieged >> basic reason. Zhang Jie's the novel << Ark >>, << the tangram >>, << emerald" << no word> >, << only one sun >> << know >> << soul is used to wandering Theme >> works are not limited to the story itself, but rather tried to point to the reality of a life with life philosophical meaning, such as << meaning through the story of the title contains the word >> statement revealed: Great Love word Love is a three-dimensional, complex, Unspoken, say Dao and unknown, but it is hard to let go of the love life no word is both a realistic portrayal, but also contains an attitude to life of the author.
Zhang Jie novel << Ark of "emerald << >> << Tangram" << word >> << know understand the title of the work in such topics >> itself are eye to performance Motif, in the works of Zhang Jie always resort to direct the discussions, speaking directly to or narrator, or with the character's thinking, deep into the soul of the characters, and aggressively pursue the meaning behind the phenomenon of life. Zhang Jie from deed blame husband's novel revelation, his novels are always close to the spirit of the soul of the character, and point to the survival of the human situation and the nature of thinking. Zhang Jie is not philosophical writers, she thought even to mention how profound, However shocking this shocking from Zhang Jie's own life experience and the questioning of the mystery of survival. to take << know in >> author is set to a "suspense" story in conversion goes in the narrative, argumentative language continue to lead us to reflect on the survival of the body., Angela Johnson's love of narrative, the narrator speak: "She does not understand, she loves the fact that point humanity a brilliant, if you give her more opportunities, maybe she will not place the Gratitude as love. "in Janan wind and a crazy relationship, described the people by the Janan wind situation speak:" What is the life of Great Mercy ? 'involuntarily' argumentative language similar to this abound read novels of Zhang Jie Zhang Jie's novel, in the read of the plight of the characters in the story to make all sorts of interpretation, the reader can not help thinking about life face the truth and narrator, ultimately, life Benxiang to achieve the understanding of "knowledge". Zhang Jie dedication to write love stories for 30 years, always through the story itself reveals love "Physiognomy apparently confirmed Wang Anyi saying: "I think the best writers, the most romantic temperament, they never meet in exposing the reality depicted reality, dissect reality, but instead sought on a realm of sublimation from the reality ....... kind of writer would be very in love with the theme of love, because love has the qualities of mind, but also has the face of reality, to create the inner world of good material.
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t; Kundera think: novelist of intellect is all certainly becomes doubt, to teach the reader to understand the world as a problem not exist then unknown novel is immoral novel great novel to novel unique way to novel peculiar logic, found that the presence of the different aspects of Zhang Jie's novels always left us with a world of doubt, the author is not to provide us with the answer, but to provide the reader with a space for thinking. << heavy wings >> the end: "He became immediately deserting, weakly in the hospital corridor on the bench and sat down, depressed thought the front or fierce battle difficult Hugh! the" wind sent figures Tianshou Cheng heard Zheng Ziyun incidence of hospitalization , I feel very pleased, but soon hears the doctor said nothing cause illness, they immediately become "deserting" the struggle between the reformists and the wind sent the figures do not separate the high down the open end of the novel , indicating that the novel no real struggle simplistic, but foreshadowed the difficulties of reform. << knowledge "is based on a series of question marks at the end:" Do you want her Inca Empire or N-generation descendants of the Inca Empire in Peru, one inch inch to plunder, and mete out? ...... Does this sentence, there are no more clues? ... presumably The Zhang will know more, but where to find The Zhang? "novels throughout is in the process of eliminating doubt, but doubt the end of this doubt is "doubt" about human Obviously, the intention of the end of the novel, that is, to the reader to explore the mystery of the human beings. << word >> end also the questions: "in this world, there are deeper hatred than this hatred?" love, life and death, hatred, Zhang Jie's novel presents a new meaning