Papers Category:Culture Papers
- Cultural Research
Post Time:2009-10-15 10:44:00
Abstract: The cultural study is today's hot topic, and numerous scholars around the culture of the various discussions.
In real life, cultural or physical considerable, with or without trace could be found, filled every corner of the world, scattered inside and outside the overflow on the people's temperament, both to its unique image to the people spreading certain ideas, norms and values, It is also a unique symbol infection, nurture each person's soul. They are, therefore, "culture" has been misunderstood phenomena have occurred, it is often mistaken for culture, a culture of the external and inner part of the cultural misunderstanding of culture as a whole, to a carrier of culture misunderstandings culture itself.
Keywords: culture; cultural essence; internal and external; whole and part; itself and the carrier
A bs tra ct: Be ing w ide ly d iscu s sed by num e ro us scho la rs in va rio us ways, cu ltu re isa ho t top ic in re se a rch nowa days.
Cu ltu re in re al life som e tim es ta ke s shap e, like dap2p led shadow s; som e tim es it do e sno t, like a se c re t fra g rance tha tpe rm ea te s eve ry co r2ne rof the wo rld . In e ithe r ca se, cu ltu re re fle c ts in the p eop leps temp e ram en t, exte nd sce rta in kind sof ide as, s tanda rd s, or va lue c rite rio n, a nd nu rtu re sp eop leps m ind sw ith itsun ique sym bo ls. Thu s itps impo rtan t to ha ve a co rre ctpe rcep tio nof cu ltu re. The au tho rth inks tha t cu ltu re in es sence co nce rn s the sp iritua l, wh ile o the rs ha ve som em isunde r2s tand ing abo ut it. In th is p ap er, p eop leps m isunde rs ta nd ing sa bo ut cu ltu re a re e labo ra te din th re ea sp ec ts.
Ke ywo rd s: cu ltu re; the es sence of cu ltu re; inhe ren ta nd e xte rio r; in te g ra la nd pa r2
tia l; se lf and ve c to r
Culture is a kind of devout faith, it is so emotionally moved by numerous scholars, become their life-long pursuit and the only ultimate fighting; culture is a deep imprint, which make it impossible to use both hands to touch, but it allows us to use mind to sense it in the wider world where the sparkling glory; culture is a grand and whole, it seems the Sea, all-encompassing, but only gave us a very profound about the spirit of the legend.
So, what What is culture? 1000 individuals will have a thousand answers.
Since ancient times, Chinese and foreign scholars, there is no lack talked about celebrity culture, seem to have a profound truth, it would seem are not clear, speak to understand. "Culture" have become that we all know, but no one can say the problem thoroughly. Looking back on the long river of history, I wonder how many scientists tried to point from their respective disciplines to define the concept of culture. In the complicated definition, history, and failed to leave behind a general agreement on the answer. Taylor is a well-known anthropologist of culture into the English-speaking world the word of the first person to. He believes that culture is a "comprehensive body of knowledge, belief, art, morality, customs, as well as members of society who have learned any other capabilities and habits" . He was given this definition under the culture has remained widely used and rated as classics. In the more than 200 kinds of ancient and modern definition of the concept of culture, we can easily find, whether from anthropology, sociology, psychology, philosophy or point of view to examine and define culture, are invariably involved in people's consciousness and behavior
Pattern. In other words, we can draw such a consensus, culture should belong to the spiritual dimension of things. In other words, culture is a nation or a certain region of the crowd formed a long historical process of shared values, thinking patterns and behavior.
Today, however, a wide range of "culture" in use, but there is more obvious misunderstandings, leading to "cultural" development is often contrary to our intention. In these misunderstandings, there are three kinds appear more typical.
Mistaken for a culture, a culture outside the inner
As we all know, the CPC Central Committee "Circular on Further Strengthening and Improving Moral Education in Schools of the number of opinions" that: "In the building of spiritual civilization in the society as a whole, the school should be one of the best small environment, and optimized environment to make a positive contribution to . " Construction of campus culture can be seen how important it is. We know that, to the campus entity as the carrier material culture is the external dimension of the entire campus culture, while the content remains the core of campus culture is, and must be a spiritual culture on campus. However, the current construction of campus culture in many schools the actual situation is a departure from this purpose. Some schools even construction of campus culture is equivalent to beautify the campus environment and enriching the student's leisure activities. Thought to mention a few slogans, operate in the upgraded; engage in several activities, cultural life is enriched; enact several sculptures, education environment will be improved. Evaluation of the achievements of campus culture on the simple "material culture" relish, but for spiritual things that has carefully. If left the spiritual and cultural connotations of the school --- the school philosophy, values, etc., a simple material construction and will become fair without the body, which has lost the meaning of the construction of campus culture.
In fact, focusing only on the material and cultural (and even that is material) and the neglect of spiritual culture in which people are mistakenly culture as a culture outside the inner. Because we are talking about the cultural connotation of belonging to the spiritual sphere, while the extension of the culture that we usually refer to the cultural structure of the material level, the institutional level and spiritual level. These three dimensions is based on material and economic, social organizations and people's spiritual lives and activities of these three forms of division. Between them in the subject have a certain level and the difference between the external form, but in ideological content, value orientation, spiritual essence and the social significance of such areas are interlinked with each other. Between them were interdependent, mutual transformation and mutual checks and balances. "This three-part mixture of relatively independent, and interdependent, mutual constraints, constitute the overall structure of organic connections, a distinguished cultural and the natural world, a meaning and value to the world."  In fact, in the campus cultural construction of small minor problems that arise in the social and cultural construction of large-scale also exist. For example, in the city's cultural construction, to focus only on the material and cultural construction of the building of the neglect of spiritual and cultural phenomenon not uncommon.
Thus, as small as a school as large as a city or even a nation, a country in cultural construction, we must attach importance to material culture and institutional culture of the building at the same time pay more attention to spiritual culture. Both through the material culture, highlights the spiritual culture of the broad and deep so, on the spirit of culture as a system of culture, material culture, "at the helm."
2 in culture as well as cultural misunderstanding the whole
In August 2008 the evening of 8, along with the Olympic flame burning and colorful fireworks in gorgeous bloom, the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games so that the world was stunned and encouragement. There is no doubt the Chinese people with their own wisdom to the world presented an unmatched cultural feast. Through a main line in the Olympic Games开幕式演出is to highlight China's splendid ancient culture of five thousand years to let the world understand China more comprehensive and profound cultural connotation. From the opening ceremony of 2008 actor hit pottery and chanting, "The Analects of Confucius" in the classic statement that welcomed the guests and friends to reproduce the whole world, Zheng He's voyages in economic, cultural exchanges, the grand spectacular scenes; from the four great inventions of movable type in order to word "and" show their evolution as the central course of the last great symbol of Heaven and Man Tai Chi circular array of entertainment. All in all without exception embodies "and" concept, which is the traditional Confucian culture and the essence of propriety. Is it just a word "and" on the inclusion of China's culture? And Chinese culture, only the Confucian culture? Of course not. There is no doubt the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games, to a particular aspect of Chinese culture to demonstrate the Chinese culture is nothing wrong, but if the viewers, especially to foreign audiences to think that this is the whole of Chinese culture, and that misunderstandings can occur, and that is part of a culture of misunderstanding as a cultural whole. It should be said that such misunderstandings are not uncommon in the real world. In an increasingly emphasis on "culture" industries now, "efforts to build cultural province (county)" in the words abound. Closer look by the emphasis on "cultural industries" is primarily aimed at a few sites, several historical figures, or the literary and artistic work --- these aspects, is like that when all the cultures. The "culture" before placed in the "industry", by inference, specifically the social sectors have a "cultural industries", engaged in this industry, people are intellectuals, while the other industries is not culture, and engaged in other industries who not intellectuals. From these we can see that as a whole is how thoroughly the culture of being some of the cultural alternative.
Culture is an organic whole area.
In Western academia, the development trend of the concept of culture is one of integrity. "In the beginning of the concept of culture is only one aspect of culture, or a description of some aspects of the concept of culture emerged later described in more and more. Is to emphasize the cultural integrity of all human culture is the creation of each species is also all of creation. "
We do not deny that every culture has its part of the mainstream, but each one contains parts are deserving of our attention and discussion. From the type of perspective, culture is to rely on the integrity to own personality, personality can not replace the aggregate. Although we must admit that every culture has its own unique personality, but is also a prerequisite for proceeding from each culture as a whole, not just rely on a single element of certainty. In the real world, many foreigners, and even some people have entered such a misunderstanding: that China's traditional culture is the Confucian culture, and as long as the understanding of Confucius's ideas and concepts, it would mean understanding of China's traditional culture. No wonder Bohls pointed out: "just to list all aspects of life, and does not constitute culture, cultural elements do not exist alone, it has its own structure. So it is something more complex than that listed."  where He stressed the culture is as a whole as the basic unit, the scope of the phenomenon of the individual does not constitute culture. Therefore, the cultural development and prosperity of the needs of television news, is the so-called "a flower show alone is not a spring, blossoming spring beauties." At the same time, the culture as a whole, the existence and performance of specific regions and groups of all activities among the various activities are cultural, everyone intellectuals do not exist --- what is culture, what people do not culture, and can only say no colleagues, different occupational and cultural characteristics of people in different ways. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
3 to the carrier of culture misunderstanding culture itself
At present, we are living in the city, is being more and more "culture" square and "culture" scenic embellishment, city and therefore become more vivid and charming. Many people and even officials from governmental departments, leaders believe that cultural square building is in the building of culture and scenic spots. For this reason, in recent years, urban construction in China, many squares and scenic spots are springing constantly emerged in the city's streets. For example, as small as each community has a basic miniature of their own cultural square, large road XX XX Square, certain road side scenery with such and such a construction, as well as certain cultural scenic spots Chau Tau ambitious expansion project . And so forth, all demonstrate that people think that culture is the so-called landscape construction material. There is no lack many of the people to introduce their city, they all are all proud to say that our city deserves to have a long history and cultural city because our city has so many pavilions, arch is embedded a mural monument plaque engraved with poems, these are cultural. In fact, these phenomena are all instructions in life, people intentionally or unintentionally, the carrier of culture as the culture itself.
Reality, the people said that this misconception of culture, in fact, the square Ye Hao, landscape or anyone else involved artifacts worth mentioning only the carrier of culture rather than culture itself. Because the content belongs to the spiritual and cultural values, ways of thinking and behavior and so on, it is always through the shell of material to be objectified. However, these shells are not culture itself, as record players and tape recorders not think that is the music itself. Man Square, a statue, just seems that there is no wonder. But through things and hide behind the concept of the soul is quite different. Only when people's attention to its creative inspiration come from, why is such a shape, it implies something reflects how the values of the surrounding crowd, and so these problems, before entering the cultural dimension. When the statue around the building reflects the characteristics of populations in these areas only when it expressed the culture here.
Accordingly, the city is a cultural, not just look at the size of the carriers of culture, more people should look at the demeanor of decency and civilization. Many people in the cultural area of random trampling the lawn, littering, and even regardless of the feelings of others, romance, rumbling noise, doing things that do not meet the culture. Can you say that this is the culture? Of course not. As the Lung Ying-tai said: "Culture? It was casually walking the face of a person, his gestures, his smile a frown, and his overall temperament. He passed a tree, branch falls, he is readily into branch discarded broken, or bent over and over? elevator door opened, he is Modesty to people, or high-handed push people? him alone how to get along with their own? " is the embodiment of culture, is a person how to deal with their own , how to treat others, how to deal with one's own position in the natural environment, it is deeply embedded in everyone's mind and hearts. We must not put a carrier of culture and the culture itself is confused. In the process of cultural construction, rely on the construction of several cultural square-like landscape, appears to be far from enough.
In short, the treatment of culture, the key lies in the cultural spirit of the brilliant shine to each person's soul. Culture is people-oriented, we see "culture" must see "people" thing, it is inherent, integral, spiritual in nature. We need to "culture", but not to no culture as a culture.
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