Chinese traditional architecture - Hakka Enclosed

Abstract: live surrounded the house, call themselves "Hakka" and live the life of a living together this way of life is different from the traditional way of life of other parts of China Han a big Kakoiya where often hundreds or even thousands of people lived their same surname, clan, some or the immediate edge offspring of the same ancestors. Kakoiya full-featured, well-preserved in one melting living, entertainment, defense, the ancient Pu Xiongqi, exudes rich Hakka atmosphere, scientists call it the miracle of the world Vernacular Architecture.

Hakka Enclosed origin.
About 1600 years ago, in order to avoid the war, the Hakka ancestors step back three, dripping with tears, reluctantly left the Central Plains homeland and began a difficult and distant the southward migration of the road. The Jin the end of the war to have lived in the Central Plains people south to escape disaster, in order to preserve the family's incense continuation of the Tang Dynasty "Rebellion" and Huang Chao Uprising, of chaos and the war continued, not the Azuchi according southward migration become the choice of many people no longer choose the people living in the Central Plains, Humiliation difficult after the Northern Song Dynasty fell court he sacrifice the river to the south, the Central Plains into a disaster and panic again, many Central Plains people across the border and become helpless. During the long years, suffered a number of times of great turmoil, experienced the Great Migration of the number of times, in while Chinese Han ethnic lineage from a good public system - Hakka always been wild South Mountain, from a group of hard-working pioneers - Hakka. they traveled south mountain , Central Plains of advanced culture and advanced productivity, spread to the rivers and mountains of the south, forming a unique Hakka culture, living together, they continue to thrive. built in Trinidad Ganjiang source the Gan fuzhoucheng, under the walls of the left of Zhang Jiang, the right of contribution Jiang, Two Rivers confluence the Ganjiang. Ganjiang South China's only north-south of the Yangtze River tributaries Hakka ancestors from this channel influx Gan, Nanshan District, and in-depth Fujian, Guangdong. of Gannan Kakoiya off history fresh carrier is the most vivid evidence of Hakka Studies. Kakoiya is almost a symbol of the Hakka. Hakka can not live Kakoiya the surrounded the house, a Hakka "Hakka" was originally a local indigenous people called the guest outsider. "off" and "master" the identity of the original is relative. foreign people to live a long time, will gradually become the old off. Finally, finally become masters. then again new customers. later, earlier come to the eyes of nature is seen as a "guest". both old off "new customers" live a long time, first, others call them the "Hakka" Gradually, they the self-proclaimed "Hakka" to the difference between the local indigenous population. they live surrounded the house, claiming Hakka and live the life of a living together this way of life that is safe and can help each other, and so Central Plains culture concept can be inherited down, so that over time, they formed the traditional way of life and the way that is different from other parts of China Han and Tai Wai house often hundreds or even thousands of people lived, their same surname, same clan, some or same ancestors the immediate kinship offspring. today Hakka Enclosed is no longer the mostly Hakkas protection Benli built their own homes, surrounded the house is no longer habitable, Hakka Enclosed representative has been developed into tourist attractions. show in the world, so that more people can understand Hakka Enclosed unique architectural forms.

Second, the distribution of the Hakka Enclosed Kakoiya mainly distributed in Longnan Dingnan Jeonnam (place commonly known as: "South", and Xunwu Anyuan, Xinfeng south, roughly located in Jiangxi Province, near Guangdong region. Shicheng, Ruijin, Huichang also have a small amount of Earthen and sporadic Kakoiya of at all, rather have, and rejuvenating at the junction of the three counties are mostly surrounded the village. Kakoiya Longnan County, the most representative, most concentrated According incomplete survey statistics, often a natural villages will seventy-eight Kakoiya. formally most complete, in addition to the large square Kakoiya (Figure 1, there are semi-circular surround Kakoiya (Figure 2, nearly round Kakoiya, there semicircular Kakoiya, gossip-shaped and irregular village surrounded both the Sanhe 2 soil and river gravel to build the structure, have the blue brick Oplegnathus Leiqi, body mass both Gannan the largest square Kakoiya in ─ ─ the Kansai Kakoiya (Figure 3), also the smallest Kakoiya ─ ─ the Liren White circumference (commonly known as "cat cabinet Wai describe as small as a cat cage (Figure 4. Dingnan County have Kakoiya almost the township, but more scattered, small boutique, Multi adobe Benzhu wall. so the house this top form of mostly hanging mountain, this rare other counties. Quannan Kakoiya basic on the use of of river gravel Leiqi wall (Figure 5, in order to secure a multi-layer shooting height most Kakoiya top of around the puzzle the female wall and shooting holes (Figure 6), so that if necessary, on the roof for desperate resistance. safety the far County Kakoiya mainly distributed in the southern township of town Kong, hole Tian, ​​now about to deposit more than 100 seats broken remnant Xinfeng County of Kakoiya more and more common in the small River Township. Xunwu County belongs to the Pearl River system, because by Yuedong culture the impact here in southern township mostly Links to free papers Download Center
Third, the main features of the Hakka Round House in the positive set blockhouse surrounded Kakoiya.

A combination of scalability

Hakka people living together from the most simple one tomorrow dark three development to two and two horizontal, three and two horizontal, until nine into eighteen halls like a big house, all reflect its group forward, to the left and right continues to expand, the extended features of this mode in the location of the open base when she hid under the momentum of development. Hakkas disputes often due to the expansion of the homestead, and even clan fight with weapons. extension sexual reflect the Hakka hope descendants developed, pioneering spirit, continuous aspiration.

Prioritized, balanced layout regardless of the housing development to scale, and always in the main hall as the central axis as the core to the ancestral hall, move gradually extended to the symmetrical development. ZhengWu, the size of the body mass of the main hall, the decorative grade, Yokoya and sub shop can not be crossed. the Yokoya door open towards the main hall direction, reflect the Hakka strong cohesive centripetal force, but also reflects the mentality of this Hakka pregnant "reverence for his ancestors' homeland from the Central Plains.

C, focus on defense, build a singularity in the past years, when the quiet life was interrupted by the war or clan battle between the Round Houses will immediately become a military fortress of protection tribe lives and property. Between the upstairs housing connectivity with many of the small door, usually over different days each, under the emergency, and everyone opened the door and even became a large cloister invading.

The penetration of indoor and outdoor space and blend Hakka Enclosed pay attention to infiltrate and blend of indoor and outdoor space, the pursuit of unity of artificial and natural, emphasizing the building into the environment, with them off each other, the pursuit of the unity of the Ration and emotion, such as in front of the Wo Ping, rectangular pond before the half-moon Wo Ping, the back of the flower beds, so that by the architecture, landscapes, flowers always focussed screen prop-sex group rather poetic, embodies an affectionate sensual colors, the red couplet and windows of the door on the colored window grilles, and a harmonious symphony both passionate melodies, tactful and soothing music, the perfect combination of rational and emotional, this creative thinking is not only showing extremely diverse, multi-level unique fusion of aesthetic form, successfully completed its construction task.

Hakka Round House constructed art. Hakka is a product of constant migration of Han population in remote mountainous areas, most of them engaged in the arduous pioneering career, when they went to a foreign land Kaiji Founding often not only to the same harsh fight the natural environment, but also the life-and-death struggle for survival space with indigenous and bandit, So seek security and defense capabilities, became Hakka reflect the kind of strong defense system. Kakoiya is defensive for the main features of the houses, how to make Kakoiya easily defensible, is made into account the Kakoiya outside painstaking focus such the a thick sturdy Kakoiya wall, mostly outsourcing bricklaying stone, endothelial two-thirds thick Health walls puzzle to the top floor, they received divided into the ring "within cursory" defensive, in order to combat this is a manifestation of the art of both the structure: on the one hand, which is to ensure a vulnerable part of the wall Caine thickness, took advantage of the upper vulnerable is too thick wall, made a circle "cursory", on the other hand, not only saving building materials, but also strive to practical defense and if Yan wing circumference, in order to preparedness trapped for a long long Wai wall even designed four oblique the "sewage Road", so that people will not get the circumference or clogged drains capable of sewage will be discharged Wai, is well intentioned, perfection. Wai Detail Art of the houses, mainly in the range, especially "country" shape around the hall building good difference or grade level. halls, often represent a circumference or a surname housing wealth or status. therefore, ancestral hall or halls of the beams skids, the door the window amount Fang, Pillars Zhuchu, ceiling, flooring, etc., will do its riches far as, completed its process can, excellence decorated as the ancestral hall door facade, general word for the wood structure archway moldings decorated or carved, the amount Seodang number or other advertised door provenance. auditorium, paving, patio giant stone steps of the street are chipped. ancestral hall or main hall is generally no floors where traditional ancestral bit on not glove to live, therefore, most exquisitely beam frame, under the hall or antechamber multi ceilings, painted folk tempera advanced features caisson, toward the hall opened doors, sash the ring board are carved Stories of halls or flower lucky beast style close to the emblem carved the patio both sides of the wing, with six or eight cell doors, windows and more for the kidnapper pattern carved combined use. within not more than by column, and wood and stone, stone inscriptions are often surrounded by couplet pillar has a carving, and forms. the outdoor paved tricks pebble fight this peripheral Shop, as well as cantilevered 's Zoumalou quite artistic characteristics In summary, in multi walked several Kakoiya, giving the sense of art is the appearance of plain, even some solemn and sense of oppression, but into the range, people lively sense of the kind of folk art, rustic sense of the local culture and generally thick breath of life sense.

V. Conclusion. Hakka Enclosed is a the distinctive Hakka houses, Hakka culture materialized body, which fully embodies the superb Hakka architectural art, not only by architects hailed as a miracle in the history of the folk architecture, and its deep Hakka Enclosed cultural connotation, historians, artists and many tourists intoxicated from the article can be found scattered in the hills, is located in Jiang river, has a green clump of bamboo accompanied ordinary farmhouse not only a variety of styles and patterns, and are tall, tight, sturdy and heavy. Faced with those already Gannan landscape integration, and is still in the silence stretch with self-personality Kakoiya, I not only feel the culture of the Central Plains unbroken weather, but also deeply appreciate the gloomy they quietly released in a lingering sense of history.


<< From traditional houses to local building >> single Deqi

The << Chinese ancient architectural history >>

The << Chinese architectural history >> Links to free papers Download Center

[DBNETLIB][ConnectionOpen (Connect()).]SQL Server 不存在或拒绝访问。

Related Research Papers on Chinese traditional architecture

Chinese Traditional Culture Papers