Papers Category:Culture Papers
- Chinese Society Cultural Papers
Post Time:2013-4-19 9:11:00
Abstract since the reforms in 1978, China's reform and in-depth development of the Chinese society has undergone tremendous changes, sustained and rapid growth of the national economy the total economy continues to improve, the level of income of urban and rural residents has also increased significantly, but at the same time China's urban and rural residents the income gap has widened. ensure social stability and economic comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development, it is necessary to achieve the "five balances" through the promotion of the integration of urban and rural areas, and increase investment in rural education, promotion of rural surplus labor force a smooth transfer and build the perfect rural social security system and other measures to ensure that urban and rural residents' income levels increasing, and effectively narrow the urban-rural income distribution gap in this article will be of Social Survey and questionnaire analysis and the National Bureau of Statistics of the relevant based on data from multiple analysis of all aspects of the causes of urban and rural residents' income distribution gap condition and the urban-rural income distribution gap, the adverse effects of the income gap between urban and rural areas and urban and rural residents income distribution gap of policies and measures to explore the establishment in China socialist harmonious society, on income distribution policy, how to narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas, how to fairness and justice.
Keywords: urban and rural residents, the income gap due to the adverse effects, countermeasures,
Third, the text
1, the practice of the purpose and scope:
The purpose of this practice is to understand some of the outstanding problems of the current urban-rural income gap in China on these issues in a number of studies and surveys, draw conclusions and make reasonable and feasible recommendations, and then in-depth understanding of our life surrounding environment. significance to improve our good at discovering problems, problem-solving skills, exercise the ability to communicate with others, anxious, people are worried about, worry about, the people of concern "to foster a sense of social responsibility. although the scope and limited, but representative, because the object of the investigation from across the country, and each case is quite different.
Practice Location: Yunnan Police Officer Academy practice object: teachers and students
Practice after analysis, the combination of all the factors involved, I will survey targeted at my school teachers and students, and give them a random survey in advance in accordance with the understanding of the group members and access, first proposed representative into the questionnaire, the questionnaire random distribution and recovered, if the survey targeted at students, asking them to fill out the questionnaire the average family situation. reasonable analysis for the results of the questionnaire, to obtain a series of results, and has been some good advice as well as solutions. the writing practice report, I make full use of existing materials and questionnaires related information, understanding of the practice's report and the main content.
3, data processing and analysis of the practice: (As shown below, according to the sixth national census data, the population of urban residents has 665.
57 million, accounting for 49.68% of the total population, rural resident population of 674.15 million, accounting for 50.32% of the total population, census data show that China's urban level has entered a rapid development period, the urban population has improved significantly, but the combination of the National Bureau of Statistics since the reform and opening up the urban-rural income statistical data analysis, the level of urbanization does not mean that the narrowing of the income gap between urban and rural residents, but China's current urban-rural income gap gradually widened.
1 China's urban-rural income gap between the current situation of reform and opening up 30 years, China's economic development has made remarkable achievements, significantly improve the level of social economy as a whole, gross domestic product (GDP) in 1978 increased to 364.52 billion yuan in 2012 24952990000000 yuan, China's GDP in 2008 was 30.067 trillion yuan, an increase of 81.5 times the per capita gross domestic product (GDP) has increased dramatically: in 1978, 381 yuan, 18,934 yuan in 2012. sustained development of the national economy each year and GNP The value of the steady growth to become the world's second largest economy, the strength of the national economy after the United States, The Wealth of Nations does not mean that rich people and the people, does not mean that China's urban-rural income gap with the national economic development and narrow the In fact, the gap between urban and rural areas of our residents in the widening Overall, urban and rural residents' income are increasing, but after the reform and opening up in 1978, the growth rate of income of urban residents is far greater than the rural per capita net income growth rate, this rate decided the gap between urban and rural income gap change overall trends in inflation-adjusted, per capita net income of rural residents and urban residents per capita disposable income growth rate before 1984 in rural areas than in urban .1985, in addition to the actual growth rate of individual years, rural per capita net income of urban residents per capita disposable income growth to be small.
A direct manifestation of the urban-rural income gap is the gap between the rich and the poor is widening urban-rural income gap between regions there are also significant differences, such as the southern and western regions (as shown below, due to geographical factors of the survey, the southern region southwest region.
Cause Analysis of China's urban and rural residents income gap historical factors developed countries in the world in the development of the capitalist period (the free capitalist stage and the beginning of industrialization period through foreign expansion, aggression, colonial plunder means the gradual accumulation of seed capital For example, the British began to enter the period of capitalism on the so-called "enclosure movement" China's development path of industrialization, world capitalism has developed to the period of monopoly capitalism, the world's largest market has been formed, the world became independent China by foreign expansion, plundering the primitive accumulation of capital has been impossible, unrealistic, coupled with China began the development of industrialized Western countries impose sanctions on China New China inherited the poor and weak after years of war, a hundred undone the mess In 1949 -1952, with a three-year national economic recovery, as well as the democratic revolution legacy problems, China's political, economic, and social outlook of the profound changes In 1953 the CPC Central Committee put forward the transition period general line and general tasks, namely "the party in quite a longer period of time, the progressive realization of the socialist industrialization of the country, and the progressive realization of the national socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts and capitalist industry and commerce and the body is to achieve national socialist industrialization. then we take the road to industrialization, for the original capital of the socialist industrialization of the country where he comes from? only the exploitation of farmers and rural, industrial and agricultural products price "scissors", the dual structure of urban and rural social economic , administrative variety of means was gradually built up the original capital of China's development road to industrialization process, however, the country has seen a serious "left" MISTAKES IN, direct manifestation of the Great Leap Forward and the people's commune movement. process of the Great Leap Forward collection of farmers' agricultural production tools, and even pots and pans make iron and steel, the aggressive pursuit of small earth group, ignoring the objective conditions of the rural economic development and laws that seriously delay the agricultural production, people's commune movement again "sophomore public "as the guiding principle, also praised the egalitarianism and the same big pot, proud of poverty, serious good affect farmers' production enthusiasm and initiative." leftist "mistakes in economic performance is to ignore the objective laws of economic development and objective conditions, resulting in long-term agricultural production lagged behind, so that the rural economic stagnation and even regression.
Second, the policy factors
Policy factors is mainly reflected in the country's economic policy there is a tendency in the financial and tax aspects of the Government in the implementation of employment, capital investment, financial and tax policies, of material prices go up and never down, leading to the urban-rural income gap is widening. China now is 10% of the population mastered 95% of the wealth, and wealth is mainly concentrated in urban income gap between urban and rural areas is more severe than in developed countries, in some developed countries such as Japan, now urban and rural addition , since China's reform and opening up, especially in the last ten years, twenty years, the Chinese government in terms of education reform, health care reform and welfare reform made a lot of effort, but these reform policies tendency should be used expenditure in rural education, health care, social insurance, etc., the Government Yigai turned down, or reduce, on the contrary, these expenditures for the city is increasing, so rural residents not afford school fees, of coverage is very serious. social insurance has also done well, social insurance for rural residents has long been ignored, so even if the money does not come up with farmers to invest, but in the bank, to guard against the big disaster or problem.
On fiscal policy, since 30 years, China's fiscal policy, long-term adherence to support the urbanization in favor of urban rural support and investment is relatively small, although in recent years the government's financial support for agriculture has increased , but the total is still insufficient, and a far cry from the city. agriculture as weak industries, its role in the national economy with its own characteristics also requires countries to support, increase financial input into agriculture, in order to compensate for the market mechanism in the allocation of resources. the drawbacks of our country now appears the government not only the total lack of investment in agriculture and the irrational structure of the status quo with the calendar year increase of government expenditure, for agricultural financial expenditure is also increasing, but far less than the expenditure for the towns, agriculture accounted for only about 10% of the financial expenditure, and towns accounted for about 90% of financial expenditure, a huge gap between the two, making too little investment in agriculture, the National Rural Public Goods supply and construction of public facilities is a serious shortage, so that the rural roads, electricity, telecommunications, public services are lagging far behind in the town, these are restricting the development of agriculture and the improvement of farmers' income, which is the urban-rural income gap is widening.
On the revenue side, the last stage, China's urban and rural tax system is still showing a dual system structure, urban-rural differences are very obvious. Although in recent years the state has conducted a series of reform of rural taxes and fees, from the abolition of the agricultural tax in 2006 and most rural charges, government at all levels of rural agricultural subsidies, such as food subsidies, agricultural subsidies, and agricultural livestock farming subsidies, and so on a series of preferential agricultural subsidies. these substantive policy but also to a certain extent so that farmers get these benefits, improve the income of the farmers, the day better than before, but it can not hide the taxes pattern of China's urban-rural dual structure and in particular in: the abolition of agricultural tax at the same time, urban and rural tax system unify the main industries in rural areas - agricultural tax policy is not established, despite the elimination of part of the tax levy of agricultural and sideline products, but not a comprehensive and thorough fact or because of China's urban and rural tax and fee reform there are still differences in urban and rural policy that has caused this situation, between urban and rural areas, the implementation of the different tax systems will be engaged in agricultural production and agricultural income groups excluded from the industrial and commercial tax system with China's reform and opening up and development, people's living standard continues to improve, the progress of the social productive forces , which requires payment and investment on agriculture and rural areas continue to strengthen, and the investment of public facilities in rural areas will also be strengthened, in order to better co-ordinate the development of urban and rural areas, so that public resources rational allocation and coordination between the urban and rural areas in order to achieve common development and common prosperity but the serious the existing dual structure of the tax system does not meet this requirement, not only not been rational allocation of resources, is not conducive the urban public resource flows to rural areas, hindering the construction of public utilities in rural areas, resulting in the gap between urban and rural areas pulled a big situation.
Third, the urban-rural dual economic and institutional factors dual economic system, is the state in promoting the industrialization process, urban and rural, industrial and agricultural, urban and rural residents to implement economic policies which economic policy lot of resources focus on distribution in urban, industrial and urban residents, the definition of agricultural policy is to serve urban development and industrialization of the country, agriculture, development of rural areas and farmers always lag behind the industry, the development of cities and urban residents. Dual System affect the urban-rural income gap in China mainly from the following two aspects: First, through some system of the rural agricultural surplus turned to the city, to support the development of industrialization, which would make the development of agriculture increasingly lagging behind the industrial with the development of other sectors, the income of the farmers continue to lag behind other income of the department staff, which led to the expansion of the income gap between urban and rural residents, the second is through the channel system, the urban-rural split, limiting their own development and improvement of the rural residents, urban and rural residents not in a starting line, leading to the poverty of the rural residents' ability, thus limiting the development of the farmers, and further lead to the expansion of the gap between urban and rural areas.
Fourth, the factors of market mechanisms
Market economic system is market mechanisms play a basic role in allocating resources to an economic system which is highly developed commodity economy, associated with the large-scale socialized production, the most basic features of the commercialization of economic resources, economic relationship monetized market price liberalization and economic system open 1992, Comrade Deng Xiaoping's Southern Talk when it proposed the establishment of a socialist market economic system, and in fourteen large clear establishment of a socialist market economic system as China The goal of economic reform, emphasizing the important role of the national macro-control in a market economy, but can not be ignored is the role of the market mechanism is the direct cause of the widening gap between urban and rural incomes. With the further development of China's market-oriented law of value in the economy an increasingly important role in the life in some high-risk, high-tech enterprises, the income of workers is much higher than in the general industry workers in rural areas, due to the food quality is not high, the cost is very high, coupled with agricultural into a buyer's market, the income of the farmers basically only subsistence, most people are forced to migrant workers, so that urban and rural residents income gap between the natural widening.
Fifth, the residency restrictions factors contemporary Chinese household registration system formation and development of China's household registration system can be described as ancient of the long history of the household registration system began about the Northern and Southern Dynasties, when the government implemented the household registration for the allocation of land, levy taxes and assessed the lord provide the basis for the entire period of feudal society, China's household registration system is basically the same, no major changes. account limit is one important reason for the widening income gap of urban and rural residents In 1958 the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress promulgated the << China Since the People's Republic of Household Registration Ordinance prohibit the free flow of agricultural population, according to the policy, only a few special circumstances to be eligible for the rural household to urban non-agricultural household and moved to the city in the late 1990s .20 , a large number of rural population into the city workers, forming a huge "Flood", and most of them are in the lowest level of the city, treatment and wages are the lowest, and are often subject to discrimination of the city people reason is that they do not have urban household registration, there is no national cadres or preparation of the state employees. rural household registration system limitations caused by the urban-rural split is not conducive to the free flow of rural surplus labor force and the benefit of the farmer-friendly policy, thus widening the income gap between urban and rural areas.
Sixth, education factors in the real world, the income level of highly educated staff is generally higher than the uneducated or little formal education members (as shown below). Educational hardware and software investment is clearly insufficient, especially in rural areas, the western region, according to the September 12, 2002 >> << Economic Times reported, the distribution pattern of the financial investment in education at all levels: the central and provincial governments have the main financial resources, but only bear 2% of the funds for compulsory education and 11%, that bear only a very small part of the responsibility for compulsory education in rural areas, the resources of the county and township governments is weak, but the vast majority of the funding burden. fact, most of the county and township fiscal revenue is for farmers levy, which increased the burden on farmers, urban residents are not subject to this part of the cost, which inevitably increase the gap between urban and rural incomes.
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Seventh, unfair urban and rural social security mechanism factors reason why there will be the binary social security system is because of the dual system of economic structure system caused by social institutional structure of this dual system of urban residents enjoy a lot of social welfare and social security, and on the other hand, rural residents can only get very little treatment or simply enjoy not differ greatly. Under this system, all the cities and towns of the construction of public facilities needed funds by State and Government and the burden of universal units, they are completely without money, and rural residents in order to enjoy such a policy must be to have to pay for government investment in rural the obvious social security and urban According. caused by the expanding income gap between urban and rural areas have registered urban residents can enjoy unemployment, pension, medical benefits and social security, farmers with rural household registration, do not enjoy any of the benefits associated with this, only to spend their own money According to the survey, in recent years, urban workers, the annual pension amount up to 2000-3000 yuan, while rural per year only 20 billion yuan for poverty alleviation and development and the "five guarantees", we can see the difference very far, which makes the lack of the necessary public health system and the health care system in rural areas, which makes the decrease in revenue of farmers' incomes than urban residents, and according to urban-rural income gap situation.
In addition, rural residents rely only way to grow crops or raise livestock for income, single income structure, income greater risk of inadequate infrastructure, transport facilities, information and ideas occlusion and other factors also seriously affected the growth of the income of rural residents.
3 the adverse effects of urban-rural income gap
(1) Due to the low level of income of rural residents, many rural residents because they are not and their contribution to the appropriate remuneration leaving the labor force from rural areas to urban mobility, leading to some idle arable land, rural infrastructure becomes vacant, is not conducive to China's agricultural economy development of a small number of rural residents in order to quickly get rid of poverty, not hesitate to defy the law, embarked on a criminal path, affect social stability, corrupted the social atmosphere.
(2) the long-standing trend of widening income gap between urban and rural residents so that farmers complained a direct impact on farmers' enthusiasm for production, is not conducive to the development of agricultural production and the steady growth of the supply of agricultural products, easy to cause social unrest, increasing the cost of investor psychology, reduce labor enthusiasm of rural residents is not conducive to the effective allocation of resources and improve labor productivity.
(3) the formation of Matthew, the rich are getting richer and the poor getting poorer urban and rural income gap, the lower the status of rural residents, fewer opportunities, not only not duly developed its human resources, or even relative and absolutely atrophy. and resulting rural residents to consumer tightening bias is not conducive to promoting rural economic development, thus affecting China's economic comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development.
(4) residents' income gap between the rural consumer market, expand domestic demand and promote the all-round development of the economy had a negative impact. Statistics show that the average consumption of each additional 1% of GDP will be a corresponding increase of 0.755% on average income disparities lead to urban and rural consumption level gap between rural residents consumption tightening bias is not conducive to expanding domestic demand and promoting economic growth.
(5) Due to the widening income gap is formed in the reform process, some farmers for poverty and illicit enrichment dramatic contrast, resulting in the weakening of some people the confidence and support of the reform efforts, resulting in a "nostalgic" psychological increase the cost of reform is not conducive to economic and social development.
4 for the current suggestions and countermeasures of urban-rural income gap, improve policies to promote rural sound and rapid economic development in recent years, the continued introduction of several countries for the "three rural" issue "Central Document", to give a major agricultural development policies to support agricultural policy guidelines have made considerable progress, but in order to ensure sustainable agriculture and healthy development, the state should continue to increase investment in agriculture policy support, such as financial support, land policy support, financial support, tax incentives, especially in land policy, it is necessary to improve the current system by the combination of the household contract responsibility system, the implementation of the land transfer, to keep the 8 million acres of land red line, consolidate the foundation of agriculture.
Second, to break the urban-rural dual economic structure, promote the integration of urban and rural development to solve agriculture, rural areas and farmers is a top priority of the party's work, the integration of urban and rural development is the fundamental way to solve the "three rural" issue to increase the urban and rural development efforts to enhance the vitality of rural development, and gradually narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, to promote the common prosperity of the urban and rural areas. adhere to industry nurturing agriculture and cities support rural areas and more, taking less and deregulation policy, increase the strong agricultural benefit farmers, rich peasants policy efforts, the majority of farmers equal participation in the process of modernization, and to share the results of modernization. accelerate the development of modern agriculture, enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity, to ensure national food security and the effective supply of agricultural products. adhere to national infrastructure construction and social undertakings emphasis on rural development, and further promote the new rural development and poverty alleviation and development, and an overall improvement in the production and living conditions in rural areas. efforts to promote farmers 'income to maintain sustained and rapid growth of the income of the farmers. uphold and improve the rural basic management systems, in accordance with the law to protect farmers' land contract and management rights, land use right, the collective income distribution rights, strengthen the collective economic strength, the development of various forms of scale of operation, build intensive, professional organizations, social combination of new agricultural management system reform of land expropriation system, improve the farmers in proportion to the allocation of land value-added income. accelerate the improvement of the institutional mechanisms of integration of urban and rural development, efforts to promote the integration of urban and rural planning, infrastructure, public services, and promote urban and rural elements equal exchange and balanced allocation of public resources, the formation of order to promote agriculture, to the city with a rural, agriculture, mutual one of the new urban and rural workers and peasants, urban-rural relations.
Third, improve the socialist market economic system, deepen the reform of the income distribution system, increasing urban-rural income market economy is a double-edged sword, which can promote the development of the national economy, while widening the income gap between urban and rural residents, it is necessary to improve the socialist market economic system, deepen the reform of the income distribution system, increase the income of urban and rural residents. reasonable income distribution system is an important manifestation of social fairness. should uphold and improve the distribution according to work is dominant and a variety of modes of distribution coexist distribution system, improve the labor , capital, technology, management and other factors of production system of distribution according to contribution, primary distribution and redistribution are properly handle the relationship between efficiency and equity, redistribution pay more attention to fairness. gradually increase the proportion of personal income in the national income distribution, improve the proportion of labor remuneration in primary distribution and strive to improve the income of low-income people, and gradually raise the poverty line and the minimum wage, the establishment of the normal growth mechanism and the mechanism for guaranteeing payment of the employee's salary. creating conditions for more people to own property income. protection of legitimate incomes, regulate excessively high incomes and ban illegal income will increase transfer payments, intensify tax adjustment, break business monopolies, create equal opportunities to rectify the order of distribution to gradually reversing the trend of widening income gap.
Fourth, the reform of urban-rural dual household registration system, promote employment innovative urban-rural dual system of household registration system formed an insurmountable gap barriers between urban and rural areas, and this barrier is not only hindered the technology, capital, in urban and rural flow between regions, but also severely hampered the urban and rural labor mobility, but also the rational flow of factors of production can not be normal, so I can not be synchronized development between urban and rural areas, followed by urban and rural areas The widening income gap, only completely change the current dual household registration system, the gradual transfer of labor, in order to promote employment and innovation.
This is the key to solve the income gap between urban and rural areas to reform the household registration system is not totally negate the existing household registration system, the existing household registration system is also reasonable that it exists, but also has its benefits, so that the reform to achieve the "absorb its essence, tick its dregs ", the reasonable part of the existing household registration system, a firm recognition and implementation of go, the current household registration system unreasonable to firmly excluded the current household registration system still plays a very important role in the social management It is not only very important data for national economic planning and the allocation of labor and civil rights of citizens and the capacity is determined by the household registration, the maintenance of public order, promote social stability. unreasonable current household registration system, is that with the urgent need for reform with the household registration system and the birth of the right to employment, education, migration, social security, medical services and other welfare measures so that only the correct treatment of the household registration system reform in order to make it go smoothly.
Reform of the household registration system, with the ultimate aim is to promote the free flow of labor to the timing of the household registration reform, clear all obstacles to the free movement of labor discriminatory policies and regulations, the development of urban and rural agreed employment qualification system, the establishment and improvement unified labor market, so that farmers have the opportunity to participate in the competition of urban jobs. then, it is necessary to regulate the behavior of enterprises, the implementation of << Labor Law >> and other relevant provisions of the regulations to ensure the legitimate rights of farmers, to eliminate pay for equal work "phenomenon, so as to promote the innovation of employment of the labor force.
Emphasis on rural education, improve the quality of education of rural residents is the cornerstone of national rejuvenation fairness in education is an important foundation of social equity education in the comprehensive construction of a well-off society of basic, pilot, overall role in the development of rural education can improve the quality of rural residents, the promotion of social justice, promote the development of the productive forces in rural areas, however, the backwardness of rural education in China, low labor productivity, low levels of education, the quality of farmers is not high, income is not high, increase productivity in order to improve the overall quality of rural residents and increase their income, and narrow the income gap between urban and rural areas, we must give priority to the development of rural education.
First place education on the priority development strategy, the government should increase investment in rural education and support to improve the rural education funding security system to the development of rural education, we must first continue to carry out and implement the nine-year compulsory education system in rural areas, the implementation of the most basic education, rural children have the right to education. Second, we must vigorously strengthen rural vocational education and adult education, and vigorously promote agricultural technology, culture literate, skilled farmers, so as to improve labor productivity. Finally, to increase the the construction of teachers in rural areas to improve the quantity and quality of teachers in rural areas to foster and promote the comprehensive development of rural education.
Sixth, adhere to the scientific concept of development, urban and rural social security system, social security system can effectively maintain social stability and promote harmony, with the improvement of China's current economy system and the level of urbanization, improve the rural social security system can effectively narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, social stability, and promote harmony, well-off, but at this stage, due to the long-term social security system trapped in the urban-rural split dual system, China's rural social security system is not perfect, a lot of places there is a deviation, resulting in social security low levels of social development lags behind, there is also the management of disharmony social security and urban residents of rural residents to enjoy a far cry According to the survey, 70% of rural residents to enjoy less than 10% of the social security therefore accelerate the establishment of a social security system covering urban and rural residents to protect their basic living conditions improve rural residents in old-age insurance system, the minimum living standard security system, and the new rural cooperative medical care system, effective rural residents "doctor, seek care", "a sense of security old age. "
Fourth, the conclusions of social practice through practice, issues related to urban-rural income gap, we understand the causes and solutions of the income gap, the most important is a detailed analysis of the questionnaire, more directly a true picture of the problem situation caused by the gap The main reason for the urban and rural policy, such as education policy, household problems, and so most people think that to improve rural living environment, some urban policy to the rural areas is the best way to solve the gap problem due to the gap between urban and rural areas has been described as exceeded the warning level of the Gini coefficient, more than the gap between urban and rural areas of social tolerance, affect the healthy development of the rural economy, resulting in adverse negative effects, for example, in politics, prone to rural residents for urban residents hatred of the rich psychological, leading to confrontation between urban and rural areas is not conducive to the harmonious development of urban and rural areas, leading to the emergence of social instability conditions, the impact of China's economic and social development; economic, urban and rural areas prone to resource misallocation, poor circulation, affecting China economic efficiency, slowing down the pace of social development; impact on the social climate is quite obvious, easily lead to undesirable phenomena of city people look down on the countryside, hostile city, public security will be threatened, under daily more social atmosphere, people the unhealthy state of mind, so the state should as soon as possible to take effective measures to solve this problem.
"12th Five-Year Plan" period is a critical period of building a moderately prosperous society in China, but also to promote economic structural adjustment, change the mode of economic growth and urban and rural development, an important period to speed up the process of the integration of urban and rural counties functional orientation, new planning and implementation as well as urban and rural areas increased, a new socialist countryside construction provides a new opportunity for development for our country, China will accelerate the construction of a new city at the same time, strive to achieve a unified planning, and comprehensively promote, in order to increase farmers' income, improve the quality of farmers to improve the quality of life of farmers, through the transformation of the rural environment, improve community services, the development of rural industries, innovation village management mechanism, to change the mental outlook of farmers to promote the transformation of the rural community, urbanization, building a harmonious socialist new countryside to narrow the income gap between urban and rural residents, urban and rural development and we believe in socialism with Chinese characteristics and the party's 48 spirit "under the guidance of the new leadership will lead the hard-working, intelligent Chinese people forge ahead, exploration and innovation, continue to maintain sound and rapid development of the national economy, efforts to achieve China's dream, and ultimately achieve our highest aspirations - common prosperity!
1 << Chinese Modern and Contemporary History >> (2010 Revision
2 << Mao Zedong Thought and the socialism with Chinese characteristics theory Introduction to System >> (2010 Revision
3. Hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, in order to win new victories of building a moderately prosperous society and struggle >> - the Communist Party of China 17th National Congress report
4. << Unswervingly advance along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics for building a moderately prosperous society in the struggle >> - 18th Chinese Communist Party National report to the General Assembly
National Bureau of Statistics data, information
(Note: the data of the report was due to the questionnaire, the event of any inconsistency, enjoy understanding Reposted elsewhere in the Research Papers Download http://eng.hi138.com