Abstract article background of social transformation, in-depth analysis of political practice and power of penetration of family pension.Families raising is one of the important functions of the traditional Chinese family, but as the transformation of the traditional society to a modern society, family structure and function has also undergone a series of changes, and these changes cause the main reason for the change of the structure of the traditional family pension.
The paper Keywords social transformation family pension pension structure
One function of the weakening of family pension
Family pension is an informal institutional arrangements, mainly refers to a way of pension, including the maintenance on the economic life care and emotional exchange. 3 3 pension, income security the most important, most fundamental, the other two aspects of the economic base. traditional Chinese family type in a nuclear family, trunk Family supplemented, so that is conducive to the maintenance of the elderly, therefore, family support is the the Chinese historical long-term legacy under product. Fei Xiaotong feedback mode once summed up China's pension mode, that parents tending obligations to their children, their children have grown up, must return parenting grace, honor their parents is a Chinese social traditions filial Thus, in everyday life, people familiar with and practice the many sons, "raising children for old age" came into being. behind the pension model, a complete set of social systems, The organizations operating mechanism and the strong support of the social and cultural family pension is an important part of the clan system and culture, and due to the patriarchal family and patriarchal political identity has traditional society, family pension and cultural significance and running logic implication Unicom with the national system and become the accepted norms of the society as a whole, it can be said, the patriarchal system of traditional society, filial piety culture, family patterns and a good cultural foundation and social support for family pension and family pension to adapt to the Chinese traditional economic base and ethical requirements to become an important part of people's ethical and moral concepts. However, as China's social changes from traditional to modern, social and family structure mode has also undergone a profound change them closely linked the family pension ways facing huge challenges and impact.
First, the traditional family structure in recent decades, profound changes one hand, small family size, the survey data of the National Bureau of Statistics show that the average family household size declined to 3.60 in 2003 from 4.57 in 1982 / household person / household, on the other hand, after 90 years of the 20th century, three generations of the immediate family of a certain level of growth, but simplified trend of family structure and there is no fundamental change in a major consequence of the family structure simplifies different intergenerational life care weakened, family pension resources tend to shrink, which makes traditional family pension to gradually weaken at the same time, with the change of the mode of production as well as a large number of surplus labor to the transfer of the city, the economic foundation of the family is also quietly changed, which led to a series of consequences: patriarchy gradually decline, the family of the individual trend has become increasingly strengthen the ties of family and clan greatly weakened, shifting the focus of family ethics, the loss of the traditional authority of the elderly, young people, maintenance consciousness has been diluted. traditional family of natural selection the the family pension ways, in the case of the decline of the traditional family, the intrusion of the modern family structure to succeed facing huge impact and influence family pension to provide financial support to the elderly, life care and spiritual solace becomes more and more difficult, pension issues have become increasingly prominent, As a result, the family pension is gradually undergoing a historic change, this change in the general trend seems to be the status and role of the family in pension increasingly digestion, the family pension supportive weakening pension reduced resources.
After the decline of the patriarchy, the growing body of research began to focus on the problem of of family intergenerational relationships and the resulting family pension. Example, studies have pointed out that the sharp, urban and rural families "lack of respect for the old, and love children more than social issues. scholars pointed out by the North part of the field, intergenerational relationship of power transfer to the next generation, and partly to the female, but the moral evaluation of the behavior of public opinion is significantly weakened, the elderly has increasingly retreated to the edge of the family life even outside. Another study found in proportion to the allocation of the resources among family members, with the development of society, the more people will turn their attention to the next generation of children, rather than their own parents, the elderly and facing care resources, while the older children are not around. brought great crisis which gives the later life of the elderly. they can not enjoy the joy of children and grandchildren around the knee, and no means of support even in the face of crisis. Whether in life support or moral support to the lack of sufficient resources.
With the changing times, the socio-economic, cultural, ideological and are subject to a great deal of impact the allocation of resources to accelerate the reform and opening up of social mobility, people exchanges between the range has gradually expanded, modern value system impact, are the maintenance of the traditional norms and Filial Piety undergoing changes, resulting in the maintenance of the elderly is rendered as the trend of the problem. So, what how these changes occurred in the Chinese family pension?
Second, the inevitable consequence of modernity: from the perspective of the modernization theory
Weakening of family pension functions, the earliest and most explained from the perspective of the modern theory the modernization theorists believe that in the process of social development, will inevitably move to a modern direction. Eisenstadt said: "From the history see modernization is moving in the evolution of European and American social, economic and political system. "This convergence phenomenon occurs not only in socialist countries, capitalist countries are also facing the same problem, which is the inevitable consequence of the development of science and technology .20 Since the 1980s, with the rapid development of a series of reforms to promote economic development and changes of the of Xu Jiating development and changes and production manner closely linked. industrialized mode of production and its productivity will have the traditional family system family model and its structure, functions and even the concept of comprehensive impact.
Pointed out that after a comparative study of Chinese and Western Family, Fei Xiaotong, and Western Family couples become family spindle family spindle marital relationship between father and son, with shaft Today, China's urban and rural households intergenerational power relations has occurred a fundamental change in the relationship between husband and wife and marriage, family relationships shift from an emphasis on parenting, kinship, traditional patriarchal society in China has declined held the point of view of modern theories tend to feel that the decline of patriarchy and industrialization, urbanization synchronization family related to the structure miniaturization of core, which further leads to the family members enjoy more personal independence, more equal to each other by a serious impact with the rapid development of the market economy in China, the original family ethics, and gradually withdraw the stage of history, so we have to say, in the world toward globalization, the distinction of the Western family will gradually digestion, gradually moving towards consistent.
Family pension weakening surface analysis under the framework of the modernization theory point of view the problems of the elderly no means of support, but the deeper reason is the changes in the structure of society and the family, and that change is a traditional society to a modern society in transition inevitable consequence. Specifically, modern for the family pension digestion significance is that:
Modern process must be accompanied by family doctrine to the home of democracy, protection from the patriarchal system to rely mainly on the constraints of public opinion, from the unconditional, non-utilitarian behavior to the conditions, utilitarian sex change, that is, patriarchal weakening led to the family changes in the pension system, its force and binding on the maintenance of the system of the fathers are greatly diminished.
2. Impact of the introduction of a range of values of the market economy reform process "filial piety" cultural, the Rites "order tends digestion Family pension system is losing a strong cultural support, at the same time, the social and moral evaluation criteria change public opinion increasingly silent and deliberately ignored a maintenance issue.
The young generation of material desires, as well as independent and increasing awareness of the gap problem increasingly prominent intergenerational exchanges by the impact and ethical relationship change.
Modern theoretical perspective has strong explanatory power for the weakening of family pension functions within the family, but the richness and particularity of the Chinese history, culture and social system than the establishment of the market economy on the basis of Western modernization theory described in much more complex, non-modern elements of the family changes would have a negligible impact, while the weakening of family pension functions since the founding of China's unique historical development and political process of practice contact with Cecil strands.
Third, national politics and power of family pension
Modernization theory seems, the process of modernization is the process of change from a traditional to a modern society, but the process of social transformation in China is a complex process of social change. Modernization is an important part of the transition, but not all, in terms of transformation the beginning of structural constraints or reality, and the development logic thus formed, China's social transformation is very unique. process of social transformation in China is not starting from a traditional society different from modernization theory to describe and connotations, at least in the following areas development trajectory.
Redistribution of the economic system and the high degree of monopoly resources .1949 years since the founding of New China, after a series of socialist transformation, the state re-configuration of resources in the transition process of modernization, economic theme from the redistribution the transition to a market economy, which is to promote the transformation of society as a whole based on the economic and social development but also a complex and subtle changes.
Resources under highly monopolistic state-society relations in a highly centralized system, the state control over resource configuration, as well as the formation of a state-controlled social system, society at this time is a construct, through a series of institutional arrangements in addition to resources outside of the monopoly system, the city in terms of organizational structure main unit system and the people's commune system in this case, any independent social forces in the country beyond the control of no longer exist.
Functioning of society mobilization state monopoly of social resources, the lack of other forms of resource allocation, lack of self-organization of society in the socialist countries, the social mobilization campaign-style to become one of the basic operation of the economic and social life way.
Can be said, it is above either Unlike traditional social modernization theory assumes, the process of social transformation in China presents a unique path of development of the socialist system, as a unique logic in the transition process did not end completely. or as a realistic constraints as a historical heritage of the socialist system factors in the transition process plays an important role.
Patriarchy as the social basis of the traditional social and family pension, its decline can be traced back to the period of the socialist transformation of the national through collectivization production deprive many social functions of the family continue to critique the patriarchal and male-centered thinking and political movement, these paternal the collapse of the patriarchal family system in traditional social support for the elderly is the traditional virtue of the Chinese nation, but also the children of the obligation, and expressly provided in the law. unfilial or anomie behavior and support for the elderly offending individual constraint and discipline after the founding took place in a series of political movements and social practice, ideology unprecedented insight into the life of every citizen increasingly dispelling traditional ethical thought and moral logic, so that the original Some of the clan system and culture in the irreversible collapse of state during this period, contrary to the traditional thinking and modern consciousness, and an unstoppable force and changing the traditional ideas. countries use executive power and a symbol of the system shaken and reconstruct the original forms of social organization and structure foundation, national administrative power alternative to the traditional social organizational structure and operating mechanism, the original local knowledge is replaced by the country's political discourse, such a social institution, organization and cultural symbols The alternative process is essential to reflect the social and cultural change, mutate "filial piety", "newspaper" the loss of traditional values and family pension system in the family, intergenerational relationships.
In short, from the perspective of national and political power to understand the contemporary family pension, you can highlight the underlying social and structural changes and cultural significance, and thus the importance of Exploration to the national power of traditional Chinese pension shift in attitudes, and thus a richer understanding of the uniqueness of China's social transformation as well as changes in the unique context of the transformation of the family pension.