Abstract form of marriage and family in the history of human development experienced group marriage system, the basic form of pairing marriage and individual marriage made three kinds, monogamous marriage instead of group marriage system and pairing marriage in human history, the development of the inevitable trend and great progress flag forward to the beginning of the era of human civilization, monogamous marriage has always been the basic form of human civilization is to marriage and family. monogamous marriage, a history of several thousand years of its existence in the form of changing with the development of society from the type of monogamous marriage Evolution on the course of our present monogamy eventually established.
Paper Keywords individuals monogamous marriage group marriage system
The main characteristics of today's China is in a period of change, reform and opening up and development of the socialist market economic development for today. Occur in conjunction with the traditional society to other areas of the transformation of modern society, the marital life of the Chinese people and their ideas and social life a profound change in this case, the paper mainly type evolution of monogamous marriage, while the foreign content of the Marriage Law, will not be discussed.
One type evolution of monogamy
Monogamous marriage is the marriage formed by the combination of a man and a woman, and that monogamous marriage. Experienced group marriage system in the history of human development, the basic form of marriage and family, pairing marriage and monogamy three stages each stage are compatible with the historical process of human development. derivative Age of Barbarism group marriage system compatible pairing marriage and barbarism, monogamy is the inevitable requirement of civilization. monogamous marriage is in monogamy instead of group marriage system and polygamy is the inevitable trend of development in the history of mankind and the great progress of a long process of development is the dual marriage on the basis of experience, established in the collapse of the primitive society, the process of the formation of a class society. marked the beginning of the era of human civilization, monogamous marriage has always been the basic form of human civilization is to marriage and family. this institution of marriage has been for thousands of years, and continue to change with the development of society.
The late primitive society, with social and economic development, hunter-gatherer economy gradually been replaced by farming planting the economy because the physiological condition of the men in the production conditions more conducive to engage in heavy manual labor in social labor and production has played a even greater role in economic and social life so they are more and more important, and also become a master of the society as a whole. Therefore, it is particularly important to the children of male kinship, men in all aspects of social life, then play important role in key basis and proven to provide a social basis and driving force, which is generated monogamy short, social progress and improve productivity, the great wealth of the social and material products of private ownership, promote patriarchal social conditions polygamous families are monogamous family replaced by economic fundamentals., as Engels said the couple made was the result of great wealth concentrated in the hands of one person, and the hands of men, and this wealth must be passed to children of a man, and not passed to any other children. "monogamy can say is the inevitable requirement of the patriarchal society marriage. therefore monogamy for private ownership of social relations in marriage and family inevitable manifestation of the monogamous family not based on natural conditions, but economic conditions, this family is more conducive to occupy private property, and implementation of the property paternal transmission and inheritance.
Second, the type of evolution of monogamous family
(A Western Zhou Dynasty the monogamous Western Zhou nobility widespread implementation of the Kazuo polygamy marriage, but whether it means the Western Zhou Dynasty nobility practiced polygamy controversial. Mr. Xie Weiyang direct "The essence of Noble marriage should be polygamy. "Mr. Cai Feng" (Noble universal multi concubine, but the marriage form, should be based on multi concubine system for supplemental monogamy rather than polygamy. "that Mr. Zhu Rui open : "Shang and Zhou dynasties ruling class doctor slaveholder aristocracy over the implementation of the the Kazuo wife and the Bean Fei Teng concubine system." the focus of controversy in the above scholars that are included in the scope of the word "wife", that is, whether it contains a "concubine". According to historical data records, the Western Zhou Dynasty attached great importance to the difference between wife and concubine, >> << Gongyangzhuan Jubilee public for three years: "no concubine wife", this is speaking strictly separated To wife and concubine. < <Book of Rites >> also said: "engaged, his wife, and ran the concubine." That is to say after the line media Xiapin marry is the wife, not the line polishers privately combination of concubines, wives and concubines is the diameter of a clear one. >> again << ritual mourning Yiyun: "the concubine things female monarch, with women things Jiugu put concubine serve is his wife and daughter to serve her in-laws, showing wives and concubines status of the poor, should not be confused with, the exact, the Western Zhou Dynasty nobility practiced monogamous form of marriage concubine for the civilian population of the Western Zhou Dynasty, due to economic conditions, they are not allowed to have many wives, so common monogamy, of course, does not rule out the case of a few wealthy persons how concubines.
Thus, strictly speaking, the Western Zhou forms of marriage and family should be based on multi concubine add monogamy.
Qin and Han dynasties (b monogamy with today's society, as in the Han Dynasty, the establishment of the marriage, monogamy also need to follow the pre-Qin era, monogamy has begun to take shape, to the Qin and Han dynasties, monogamy has been gradually put into practice, is no longer just feasible can not always ideal. law of the Qin and Han dynasties, bigamy (multiple husband or complex being the wife of behavior is against the law to be punished. Qin Empire Act on bigamy, that male A a with women B married when the penalty. article decree given the sins of the husband can marry wives, wife of party, and shall condemn for bigamy. According to the law of the Qin Dynasty, the man divorces his wife reported that the officer would remarry, in the implementation of divorce, still the case illegal areas of bigamy. then monogamy is, strictly speaking, monogamy multi concubine system, which contains two meanings, one for the wife of the "single-mindedness" Kazuo made, the other is for the husband of one wife more than the concubine system. Firstly, the Han Dynasty stressed and women branded keep the Women require women to strictly follow the the Kazuo system or even single-mindedness. Confucian ethics teaching women to be single-mindedness, << Rites. country special offerings >> said: "letter, feminine virtue One thereto Qi, life is not changed, Gu Fu refuses to marry." in the Han Dynasty, with the promotion of Confucian ethics, the concept of "single-mindedness" increasingly ruled strongly advocated. reasons of poverty like polyandry, although in remote areas is not a convention, but acquiesced recognized, if not put to the lawsuit, unscathed., the city's mainstream form of consciousness is not customer-tolerance this does not open the custom of the Western Han Dong Zhongshu cloud: "Spring and Autumn meaning of the words Mrs. attributed to Qi, the words her husband died without male, there are more married Road", that is, if the husband died childless women based on Confucian ethics can remarry, because for women to "obey" Shun husband's death without children, only remarry her no heed. This shows that in the Western Han Dynasty, although implementation of Kazuo made, but the husband died remarry or be allowed up to the Eastern Han Dynasty, Kazuo The system is further reinforced "single-mindedness" And the rulers also specifically for a feast women wrote books pass this advocacy, strengthen the concept of women's "single-mindedness" of chastity. Secondly, the requirements for women Kazuo made women "single-mindedness" On the contrary, the Han Dynasty man more than one wife concubine, can divorce his wife to remarry, wife dead remarried, is actually Teng concubine system, ie the typical monogamous concubine system. a wife and more than jump system for generations Xiangyan Han law stipulates that the emperor addition to Queen outer, there is Zhao Yi, Czech Republic Beauty various grades of "Zhu Ji", as well as the official three thousand other aristocratic bureaucrats build jump, an unlimited number of princes wife Ann, or to the hundreds of people, the rich and powerful Limin Qiang Song to dozens of people, "some called the" little wife "According >> << Han Gong Yu Chuan cut some called "Little Women", and some called the "foreign woman" or "Shimotsuma in the Han Dynasty, the men recruit wives is legal, as authorized by law, so aristocratic, wealthy wide set Teng concubine early Han provisions : Princes a concubine eight sub. above provisions soon be broken. Wudi, Emperor Zhao Xuan, Princes wives of hundreds of as much as to the Eastern Han Dynasty, the amount of the ladies of the house a little restricted, the law provides that the number of the wives of the princes should not exceed 40. Han Dynasty more than Teng concubine phenomenon also reflects the the concubinage fact that history contained: "vertical Huan, virtual situation, Wei insult decent, married female closure of." eunuch eunuch also a wife already lost virility, and common sense have been less able to get married and concubinage, but precisely because of the influence of the ethos of the society at that time more than wives, plus Han Dynasty eunuch forces upward trend and gradually large, so appear in Han Dynasty eunuch wife concubinage special phenomenon.
On the basis of monogamy concubine system, but also prohibits the wives random bit strict restrictions on the status of wives and concubines. The Han Dynasty provisions of "chaos wives bit counts as concubine wife, or the wife concubine, constitutes a the chaos the harem bit "sin. >> << Han thought Yi Hou table contains: hole Xiang Hou Fu Man sit chaos wives bit free" that chaos wives bit rabbit go office.
(C Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties monogamy monogamy has been through the basic form and the basic principles of the ancient Chinese marriage, successive legal polygamy is expressly prohibited by law, the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing also no exception., such as the Law of Qing >> << the Ming Code >> and << have terms: "If the wife is more a wife, also rod ninety, (after the married wife of divorced (normalized cases. then the principle of monogamy, is actually monogamous multi concubine system. because the man in a polygamy marriage concubinage, only a token legal restrictions on the conditions of concubinage., that is, " years more than 40 without children who Fang Xu concubines. Offenders A forty Qianlong five years (1739, the statutes Museum was newly built << Law of Qing >> This one limit concubinage conditions the law bar has also been canceled. fact, restrict concubinage conditions can not be restrictions on the fundamental social concubinage of wind the Ming and Qing Dynasties, concubinage widespread mocking this imperative.
Of monogamous (during the Beijing government of the Republic of China (d monogamy. "Gender equality", "monogamy" and "the abolition of the the concubine system" the voice rising, the Northern Warlords Government legal inherited the tradition of monogamy and more concubine system. First, a clear denial of bigamy Bigamy non-civil action. Secondly, the concubine with official spouse - wife of District distinguish to understand the tsip legal unnamed contract relationship and marriage with the other., concubinage is not regarded as a formal marriage. (Nanjing National Government during the monogamy. << ROC Civil Code >> There are no provisions of the concubine system, on the grounds : "by my urgent should be abolished, although in fact still exist, and the law can not admit its existence, its status, it is safe to Codex and a single law specially provisions." we can see the Nanjing National Government marriage legislation recognized monogamy, in the strict sense of the negative concubine made considerable progress significance.