Abstract: With the increasing aging of our population, in the current "old before getting rich" in the case of social reality, what kind of pension model has become a hot issue the focus of the whole society. Pension home care model in line with China's cultural tradition, strong government support, to meet the practical needs of the public, with a better system of community-based organizations, as a social system model of innovation in the western city communities have implemented effective and feasible.
Paper Keywords: urban communities, home care, feasibility
2010 The sixth national census showed Dazhou aged 60 or older population 963,600, accounting for 14.1% of the total population, 80 years of age or older population 91,900, accounting for 9.54% of the total elderly population, according to international standards , Dazhou has entered the ranks of an aging society. According to estimates, by 2015, the Florida city's population aged 60 or older will reach 1.2 million, accounting for about 17% of the total population, the average annual increase of 47,000, an average annual increase 0.58 percentage points, of which the population aged over 80 years will be more than 150,000, accounting for 12.5% of the total elderly population, an aging population has become an important development in Dazhou population trend as the western city of Dazhou small, increasingly aging The more serious, and the elderly lower overall level of social security, income less poor health, "empty nest" families disproportionate characteristics, which in the current "old before getting rich," the social reality of what to take pension model has become the focus of the whole society hot issues.
Chinese sociologist Fei Xiaotong has pointed out that modern Western society and Chinese society, there is a considerable pension model differences, modern Western society is "relay" type of pension, rather Chinese society is "feed" type of pension manner But can not ignore the fact that China's current "feed" type challenges faced by pension ways: First, nurturing style pension is built on the basis of the peasant economy, but with China from an agricultural society to industrial society in transition, small-scale peasant gradual disintegration, lack of nurturing style pension gradual economic base, second, because the implementation of the family planning policy, China's "four hundred twenty-one" type of family structure types, more and more family pension increasingly heavy burden, coupled with population flow intensifies, lack of filial piety culture and other factors, nurturing style pension practical difficulties faced by the traditional family pension functions have weakened.
Determine the characteristics of the current elderly population that we should construct not only for local socio-economic development level, but also to adapt to the characteristics of the elderly population elderly strategic framework to address the pension problem in this context, one kind is currently being vigorously pursued in the city home care model as a possible choice is elderly home care to live at home, and community to provide a way of pension services, both distinguished from pension institutions and different from the traditional family pension, it is the family as the core, community-based, senior life care, medical rehabilitation, mental solace as the main content, more service and community centers serve as the main form of home care service is the family pension and social pension combine a pension model. home care is the most in line with China's national conditions a pension model, because it integrates government, society, communities, families and individuals in a variety of forces, the formation of multi-party support, is to integrate various resources of the new pension model. Dazhou city government from the local reality departure, focusing on the development of home care services, and strive in the "five" period home care model from the city to the county to promote the city to the rural extension, the city's urban and rural areas to establish the basic home care service network, so that 90% of home care of the elderly to achieve, gradually establish a home-based, community-based, institutions for the support of social care service system, to achieve urban residents a sense of security, the old medical care, worthiness, old school, old religion, the old and be happy.
One, in line with China's cultural tradition endowment - the basis for the implementation of home care model
China is a long-standing deep Chong old, respecting the traditional ancient civilizations from the perspective of cultural heritage, << >> The Book of Songs in so many words: "Come with me Father, mother nourished me, pat me build me my education I have a long, complex I after me, out of my belly. desire quoted Germany, wherever she went. "People in the Spring and Autumn Period End parents realized as boundless as the sky, the Confucian doctrine of" filial piety " the highest standards as a matter of course, to honor their parents as a personal ambitions and efforts noble mission, from the traditional concept, the centrality of the family in society, "home" deeply entrenched, people live in a family relationship interdependence , and from the traditional institutional point of view, as early as the Qin Dynasty had a more comprehensive pension system, the minor children of the fruits of labor by their parents parenting adults, aging and ailing parents until, by the labor of children to adult support their parents. raising children is the parents themselves as pension for reserves, known as "raising children for old age." Chinese traditional moral and ethical concepts has been great efforts to support the blood that contains links contact geopolitical, economic linkages and other ties between the elderly and children, social relationships, in fact, in the family living together by the formation of long-term harmonious family relations, but also any other social relations can not be replaced. thus "family pension" system has a long history, in-depth people, pension model for the continuation of the promotion must be thousands of years of traditional thinking has some inherited pension, so in order to have continuity and viability.
China's current home care service is both foreign, Hong Kong, Taiwan and other pension experiences of other countries, but also China's traditional family pension model and promote innovation in depth according to the author of each survey found that home care service centers, home care from the current residence formal point of view, elderly people living in their own home, but the old man to the children before going to work or home care centers for the elderly themselves to pension center or service personnel on-site service, and therefore still enjoy the warmth of the elderly can maintain their dignity as a householder, to avoid of the "courtyard-style pension," the lack of affection from the living environment, the elderly essentially without departing from their familiar community environment and living environment, the elderly relatively strong sense of family, neighbors emotional importance to maintain, geo-cultural concept of a strong, new adapt to the environment is poor, they live on their own communities have a stronger sense of identity, sense of belonging and a sense of dependence. Such home care for the elderly living environment more in line with the traditional concept of financial support from home care, the part of its endowment resources subsidies from the government and society, and some still have to come from family members or their own income, "raise children to old age" has some inheritance from a lifestyle point of view, the elderly can still be arranged according to years of daily life habits , familiar environment can help them maintain the original habits, friends, acquaintances also enable the elderly spiritual pleasure.
Essentially, home care services in the community to support the establishment of a family pension social service system, in line with China's cultural tradition endowment, is the traditional model of family pension supplement and innovation, according to China's national conditions update service concept, innovative Pension way, the traditional cultural inheritance pension based home care for the elderly has become a solution of many important way pension services needs.
Second, government support - to implement a powerful driving force home care model
Government has a leading role in the field of social welfare is supported with international experience, << 1982 Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing, >> said: "Ensuring families continue to play a major role and continue to enjoy the dignity of the elderly, status and security ...... is worth Governments and non-governmental organizations to seriously consider and act on the issue. "" encourages Governments and non-governmental organizations to establish social services to subsidize the elderly person at home for the entire family, and willing to perform specifically to help older people to stay at home various measures for low-income families. "How to deal with an aging population, the government plays a designer, organizer, implementers and other roles, which is both a necessary requirement for social pension, also the government must fulfill the basic duty, is any other body no law replaced. Fifth Plenary Session of the Seventeenth Party made clear that "positive response to population aging, pay attention to family and community features, the priority development of social care services, fostering the growth of Aging Services business and industry," shows that the government The community's role in the pension placed in an important position. << CPC Central Committee from 2000 to the State Council's decision on strengthening the aging work >>'s "relying on Community Development elderly services" to 2011 << China Aging Development "Twelve Five Year Plan" >>'s "focus on the development of home care services," home care service model has become a government pension support new ways.
Dazhou municipal government to actively implement the central requirements, has introduced << CPC Dazhou Dazhou Municipal People's Government on strengthening the work of the views on aging >>, << Dazhou Municipal People's Government Office on Aging Office of forwarding and other departments on promoting the work of home care services Opinions on the Implementation >> << Dazhou social care service system "Twelfth Five Year Plan" >> and other related policy documents, support home care careers. Firstly, the Government attaches great importance to ideological development of home care in << Dazhou Municipal People's Government Office on Aging Office of forwarding and other departments on home care services to promote the implementation of views with particular emphasis on the notification >> "comprehensively promote home care services, is the current response to population aging challenges, solve puzzles fundamental way pension services , is carrying forward the fine traditions of the Chinese nation respecting elderly, respect for the elderly emotional and psychological needs of human choice, is to promote family harmony, community harmony and intergenerational harmony, promote the construction of socialist harmonious society important measure, but also accelerate the development of services expand employment channels and an important way to promote economic growth. "clear benefit from the concept to implement a variety of home care ideological obstacles. Secondly, investment in home care services to specific government establishment of mechanisms for the implementation of home care provides an institutional guarantee. home care is still a new thing, from there to the residents also need a process of acceptance, and thus the need for government funding upfront investment. Dazhou municipal government established a home care service special investment mechanism will be home-based care services into community service and consider , according to the socio-economic development and the changing needs of the elderly, arrange special funds to support the community home care services, and gradually increase the level of financial security, pension service system to promote the transformation to moderate Pratt & Whitney, the establishment of special funds to subsidize home care service, layered implementation home care services, subsidy funds into the local budget. Finally, the United various departments to co-ordinate the overall situation, the implementation of home-based care to ensure the organization. municipal government explicitly Municipal Development and Reform Commission, City Board of Education, Municipal Civil Affairs Bureau, the Municipal Labor and Social Security Bureau, the Municipal Finance Bureau, the Municipal Planning and Construction Bureau, the Municipal Health Bureau, the Municipal Population and Family Planning Commission, Local Taxation Bureau and other departments in the home care service-related functions of duties to avoid passing the buck on the obligation.
Currently home care in government support to promote the early stages of the establishment from the service organization, facilities acquisition, service projects to determine the content of the specific services programs are all a government to complete, although administrative rich colors, but this is in line with China's national conditions choice, the government home care service home care support is implemented smoothly powerful driving force, will become increasingly sharp crack of the plight of pension services important way.
Third, to meet the practical needs of the public - home care model for sustainable development of the fundamental
Looking at the history of the development of human society, any kind of social needs while generating often accompanied by some spontaneous, the means to meet those needs, but with the social and environmental factors change, these traditional, spontaneous means can not continue to function effectively play a role, thus triggering a variety of social problems, the need for new power of intervention in order to strengthen the role of these instruments in the traditional peasant economy status, to adapt production and lifestyle, household demographic structure of the family pension model was the most good choice. As industrialization and urbanization progress, production and lifestyle changes occur gradually, household population structure is also natural or social intervention to change. pension system as a tool to meet the needs of the community, the need to establish this tradition in the family system or functional basis and to enhance its original function as the goal, such pension model to be able to get public recognition, in order to meet the needs of the majority of elderly care services.
Home care in the inheritance, pension reform and development on the basis of the traditional family, the elderly living at home and community home care, community care combining emerging pension model This model not only to make up for lack of family support function to solve their children to the elderly life care difficulties, but also meets the needs of elderly family destination, to ensure improved quality of life of the elderly, while the development of community economic and social cost savings also has important value and significance from the family point of view, on the one hand, the social costs increasing social pressure, social competition growing, young more resources into the cause of the child, the other hand, since retired, elderly physiological degradation as a result of their reduced income, had need to feed their children. which led to the "old before getting rich" situation of the elderly has become a lack of resources endowment products, home care or micro-public nature of public service adapted to the needs of family pension from the perspective of public psychology, the traditional "raise children to old age" thinking There has also been a strong vitality and social recognition, nursing homes, nursing homes has also been considered to be living alone in place on the one hand, the public and their own inner condemn the child unless a last resort are reluctant to allow their parents to the pension agency, and the other On the one hand, "roots" concept so that the elderly are also emotionally and psychologically difficult to accept the fact that to a home. living at home to accept social services home care model in line with current public psychology, can be widely accepted from the social costs perspective, on the one hand full advantage of home care housing and other living facilities and other natural resources in the family, compared with pension institutions with less investment, low cost, service wide, toll inexpensive, quick, and other characteristics, reduce pressure on hospital care services, is one of the most economical public consumption, one kind of way to make good use of our limited resources on the other hand, fully mobilize the community home-based care can limit resources to provide jobs, contribute to community economic development, and promote community building.
Pension services by the community, residents can stimulate the spirit of solidarity and participation, helps to build empathy community, is a high external benefits pension ways. Generally speaking, home-based care to meet the public's family, the public mental , social and other aspects of practical needs, home care is fundamental to sustainable development.
Four, with a better community organization system - home care model to implement security conditions
The home care service is currently relying on the government to provide community-living elderly home care, housekeeping services, material support, rehabilitation care and spiritual solace and other aspects of service in the form of a service, so the community organization, improve the service mechanism, mature of experience, a wealth of human capital and other community organizations to establish themselves as the successful implementation of home care model security conditions.
From relying on home care organization point of view, a sound home care service home care service system architecture is an important carrier, and actively cultivate and regulate the development of home care service organizations to government-led home care service business is important. Country in harmonious community construction, to improve community care function as a new community building contents. currently the gradual improvement of community service network construction, establish and improve the city, streets and communities three service network, the basic realization of city streets and community home care service network full coverage, home care services to speed up the construction of information systems, good home care service information platform for experimental work, and gradually expand the scope of the pilot, strengthened mechanisms, service mechanism construction and improvement of services to ensure sustainable development, has been established the volunteer registration and management system, pension services professional qualification system, licensing system and other mechanisms to ensure that home care service system construction and improvement.
Experience in home care services from the point of view, the first community to Respect, love the old pension system as a social engineering to carry out, give full play to community organizations, mass organizations, community enterprises and other relevant functional departments, and vigorously carry out the "respect for the elderly project "," sunset engineering "and the second, in the district offices, community councils set up a" home service group "," old table "," daycare "," volunteers "," Community Service Center, "" Silver Age health service stations "and other diverse forms of service, and the third by the home care service centers for maintenance staff for the elderly" one to one "helping to provide food aid to help clean, bath help, medical help, walkers, aid and other emergency services, while providing cultural entertainment, learning education, chat, psychological counseling, purchasing agents and other services, life can not take care of the elderly person can take home bag customer service, etc. home care service experience in-depth exploration and pilot for the home implementation of pension provides a wealth of practical experience.
From home care human capital perspective, the full use of all available human resources to provide services for the elderly: mobilization, organization, and guide enterprises, institutions, social organizations and community residents there is a demand to provide welfare services for the elderly, to play the role of volunteers , the community has set up a home care service Volunteers Association, member of diverse functional edge structure is conducive to conduct free clinics, legal aid, health knowledge, chatting, shopping and other volunteer activities to help advocate for the old younger elderly participation in voluntary service, deepen, expand volunteering services and content, and guide and support social forces to carry out home care services to encourage social service enterprises play their own advantages, home care service development projects, etc. With the concern of the community home care, home care human resources increasingly rich, to carry out home care services more feasible and convenient.
China's current wave of innovation in social management and promote home care as a social system innovation, to further transform government functions, rebuilding the relationship between government and society, building service-oriented government, improve the grass-roots social management service system is of great significance and value theory, the implementation of home-based care has the necessity and innovation, from a practical point of view, not only in Beijing, Hangzhou, Ningbo and other eastern regions have an effective home care model feasibility, small Sichuan province in the west city has also been shown to be necessary and feasible, but one can not ignore the fact that home care is still a new thing, still in its initial state, due to local economic conditions, values, institutional innovation, lifestyle and other social infrastructure exists very a big difference, the full implementation of home care also need more demonstration and research, the implementation of home-based care model will be a long gradual process.Links to free download http://eng.hi138.com