Organization's open model and comparative analysis of closed model

     Abstract: The organization is mankind's most common social phenomenon.
From the organization's general theory, comparative organization theory, two kinds of mainstream models - an open organization theory organization theory model and the closed model, summed up the characteristics of each of these two models to arrive to their differences and to identify fundamental differences between them to explore the their respective application specific environment. 

     Keywords: organization theory; closure model; open model; open systems 


     Organization of the human race since ancient times the most common social phenomenon, but a systematic study of the organization and thus to establish a complete set of organization theory is that 20th century thing. Organization theory literature is generally divided into three kinds of theories, namely: closed model of organization theory, open model for more than two kinds of organization theory, as well as a comprehensive model of organization theory models. These three school model theory and its tributaries constitute the organization theory over the years. Since Taylor in the 19th century, early 20th century opened the first of its kind since the organization theory research, the system of organization theory has gone from classical organizational theory, neo-classical organizational theory, behavioral science and organizational theory to the modern organization theory jungle development process. 

     Closed organizational model is Taylor's "scientific management" theory, Fayol's classical organization theory and Weber's administrative organization composed of classical management theory, organization theory. The classical theory of management organization in order to pay as a fundamental and all the dynamic methods of organizational model, which is a centralized economy structural model hierarchy. This period more emphasis on organization theory researchers to use a static point of view of organizational structure, division of labor, responsibilities, systems and terms of such issues as the organization as a closed model. To sum up, closed organizational model of the basic features are: 

     (1) there is a clear division of labor organizations.
Specialized tasks (ie, the division of labor) is the center; the organization to follow the nature of the tasks, work processes, operations and personnel in different locations the division of labor; 

     (2) The organization is a multi-level structure, so that unity of command, orders without exception.
Pyramid structure of the organization, command of the means of communication from the top down; 

     (3) should clearly define the roles within the organization.
Each position in the organization should have clear terms of reference, and requires each person to assume their duties, should be aware of the tasks. Stressed the lower right of obedience to superior orders; 

     (4) organization is based on the laws and regulations, the system formed.
Everyone in the organization of each member are subject to laws and regulations, and systems control, members of the Organization to be chosen in accordance with laws and regulations through the examination for admission; 

     Looking closed organization theory can be found, Taylor's scientific management school is from the grassroots manager's perspective daily production for the enterprise organization and management model, while Fayol is based on the large companies in senior management, all activities of the enterprise organization design, Weber is from a technical level, the ideal to design a universal organizational model. Bureaucratic system is a classical organization theory to the design of the organizational structure of the most important contribution. While the bureaucratic system in carrying out its work more accurate, faster, more efficient, destroyed the fetters in the management of the feudal relations, but with the human factor in organizational management in the increasingly important disadvantage of bureaucratic system is also on the current : This organizational structure to adapt to the beginning of this century, the social system of production from the workshop-style small-scale production system to the factory's social transformation of large-scale production systems, promoting organizational efficiency and development of social productive forces and meet the organization was a sharp organized under the expansion of state control and standardization of operating requirements. However, this is a "mechanical" organizational model, only relatively stable operating environment for the organization situation. When the environment changes in the frequency to speed up the economic model to reduce the role of stimulating, its weaknesses will appear exhaustive. Ignore the external environment the organization will be organized as a closed system to study, but this is a major flaw of organizational theory. Management thinking in the non-personalized set up under the guidance of the excessively strict rules and regulations and mechanical organizational model to enable organizations to communicate easily misinterpreted, organizational conflict, frequent, and this right management focus on people made new demands. In this context, the new open and pay more attention to human-environment interaction model of the opening of the organization theory came into being. 

     Open organization theory is based on the hierarchical structure of classical organizational theory-based, drawing on psychology, sociology, on the "group" theory point of view and knowledge, in the classical organization theory to amend and supplement the basis of shape. Classical organization theory drawback is that the activities of man as machine, completely ignored the humanity and emotional impact on organizational efficiency, while the neo-classical organizational theory in the behavioral sciences and psychology under the guidance of the knowledge-depth study of a people's feelings as a link to the established the existence of informal organization causes and the role of positive and negative, for the development of organization theory pointed out the direction and laid a theoretical basis. Representative of the organization of behavioral science theories have Mayo, Maslow and so on. Mayo and others the most important contribution is that organizations are not only technical - economic system, but also a social system, the incentive for people not only economic but also social and psychological aspects. Members of the Organization to meet the social and psychological aspects of organizational efficiency is essential. Maslow on the hierarchy of human needs 5. In addition, the modern systems for the creation of contingency theory and research development of model theory for the organization has injected new vitality, the theory that the organization is an open society with the overall performance of technology systems. Modern organization theory and putting the focus by the organization's internal transfer to the environment by the Organization of passive adaptation to changing environmental point of view to the impact on the environment, the theory of organization theory provides a new visual and analytical methods. This open model of the basic characteristics of the organization can be summarized as: 

     (1) The organization is an open system for the external environment, constitute the basic elements of the organization is its people. Input from outside organizations, resources, energy, information, and conversion to the outside world through the export of products and services, this conversion process is done by people, therefore, it is necessary to understand and study themselves; 

     (2) The organization is orderly division of labor, the entire social system in a subsystem.
The organizations, including the structure of subsystems, digital systems-level, psycho-social subsystem, goals and values of subsystems and management subsystem, organization is seen as a mobile network architecture; 

     (3) organizations, methods of communication between members are parallel, because the organization is a flat structure, and continue to input information from the outside world, so that the organization as a feedback system. The conflict between members to be coordinated through the simultaneous interaction, rather than a superior uniform rule; 

     (4) organization is a formal organization and informal organizations constitute the system.
The organization structure of relations is not only a duty, and because members of the interaction also exists a kind of invisible influence, this influence is not only runs through between the upper and lower levels, but also exists in between the same level.  reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download

     It is obvious that with the closed model of organization theory compared to an open organization theory model is: 

     (1) with "human nature" instead of "mechanical.
" Closed model, the organizational structure of the operation is a strict legal provisions to regulate the operation of the power hierarchy, this model is static - the structure - the viewpoint of regulatory research organization problems. The open model emphasizes the integration of people's character. The members of the Organization of birth, social environment caused by different personality differences between members of different personalities of people's understanding of things, understanding, different views, resulting in conflict, it is inevitable. 

     (2) with "dynamic" instead of "static.
" Closed model, the organization's basic operation have been strictly legal provisions or levels authorized by the provisions of a lack of interaction among its members, only the top-down way of communicating with one. While in the open organization model, people have thought, have feelings, conscious. In the organization, personnel not only in the formal organizational relationship, but also often in informal contacts, this is the interpersonal relationships, it is the organization of a natural phenomenon. 

     (3) with the "feature" instead of "structure.
" Study of the organizational structure of the closed position can only understand the organization, hierarchy, the organization can not know how to staff skills and abilities. In order to analyze only the function of the organization's internal state, because the open organization model carried out by a full-scale, systematic study. 

     (4) with "mental" instead of "victory.
" The early closure of the representative model of organizational theory of Taylor, Fayol吉尔布莱斯couples and people are trying to break the physical limits of man as a production tool, however, repeated efforts, people expect productivity and harmonious working target did not reach expectations. Open model is that human behavior is a reflection of their psychological and winter, people's needs and motivations by no means limited to physical satisfaction, but by the increasing demand for a higher level. 

     Comparing the above model we can not determine which one is better, they are in a particular social context, historical conditions generated. Closed model claims that the environment is stable, the task is routine and open model claims that the environment is changing, mission-oriented non-routine; closed model of X-theory point of view of human nature, while the open model is a theoretical point of view with the Y ; closure model that the society is unstructured, but it can be predicted, open model that the society was highly structured, and is unpredictable. These are the fundamental differences lies. 

     Today, we need to face the real problem is that management organizations are experiencing tremendous impact on modern social change. Management organizations, how to adapt to environmental changes, is the current management sector, the urgent need to address the problem. The management of a comparative study of organization theory, is an attempt by theoretical analysis to explore the inherent law of development, seeking management organization theory, structure and methods of further development of ways to make managing organizations in the new environment, situation, survival and further development. 



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