Papers Category:Culture Papers
- Chinese Modern Clture Papers
Post Time:2012-11-28 9:13:00
Marx pointed out: << from Marx >> dependencies of the initial form of society, in this form, the production capacity of the people just in a narrow range and isolated location on the development significant. the material dependency independence, is the second largest form, in this form, before the formation of the universal relations, and the need for comprehensive exchange. built on the development of individuals and their common social production capacity to become subordinate to their wealth of society based on freedom of personality, is the third phase of the second stage is to create the conditions for the third stage. " Here, Marx and social development is divided into direct social relations, social relations materialized, the free people of the Commonwealth such three morphology corresponding to this, Marx believed that the development of human society there are three kinds of political civilization: the political civilization of the subjects the social (ancient society), civil society (capitalism social) political civilization and political civilization of civil society (socialist society). subjects of social and political civilization, civil society and political civilization to destroy civil society, political civilization instead of public social and political civilization, this is the inevitable way of the development of political civilization of human society. Coincidentally, another classic writers Engels in accordance with the viewpoint of historical materialism of the development of political civilization of mankind extremely similar analysis in the << The origin of the family, private property and national >> (1884), Engels pointed out that the same ignorance polygamy and barbaric era of group marriage system and polygamy, civilized era of the family in the form of post-secondary dual system appears designed to open the dawn of human civilization, while in this phase Contact the production of private possession on the basis of class and national marks the beginning of the political civilization of mankind, and that human beings into organized political activity status but even capitalist society in slave, feudal authoritarian society, this kind of political civilization showed naked hierarchical oppression, it is the same inequality injustice, lack of freedom related, therefore not a real reasonable political civilization this, Engels envisaged the social formation after the proletarian revolution, should be "to be able to liberate themselves with the proletariat mature, it as an independent parties combine to elect their own representatives, ", to achieve genuine freedom and equality of socialist political civilization goal. This paper from the above analysis of the classical writers, to the evolution of world history is a perspective careful consideration, in order to outline the inner identity of human political civilization development goals and building socialist political civilization.
First, the subjects of social and political civilization
Marx pointed out that "civil society, including all material on a certain stage in the development of the productive forces of various personal engagement" , it is the reality of the private life of the world, is the sum of the production of substances in the process of production and exchange relations. Certain social production , exchange and social life, social organization, system, etc. constitute the main content of the civil society, it formed society organizations form the basis of the country at all times., national building contradictions in social life and private life, building on the contradiction between the public and private interests in ancient society, the serfs attached to the monarch, kings and local "subjects" civil society "of a political nature" directly to the area of private life is also subject to the rating privilege and personal attachment relationship between the political constitutes subjects not only autocratic powers of vassal matter, also was seriously patriarchal morality of strict constraints, the formation of feudal society autocratic political community of geographical, kinship Community, thus creating the members of society "subjects Culture" fear of power, subordination and obligations recognized, bear, and unconditionally obey the monarch, country, family, Father, subjects can not go beyond the centrifugal separatist powers, and obligations of the double standard values, subjects can not be beyond the average narrow patient dependent, harmony automorphic naturalistic life pattern, can not go beyond seeking safety and self-sufficiency, the pecking moral, population-based patterns of behavior, human nature was seriously inhibited the value and dignity of the people have been seriously derogatory subjects of social and political civilization has the following three characteristics.
First, the obligation - based in Ancient China, we found the Confucian rites as a traditional political philosophy nucleoplasm one spiritual essence obligation to obey the spirit of this obligation from the spirit of the people do not become the person to make obligations impose become the object of political power operation. the Confucian ethics highest realm for "benevolence", collectively referred to as the realm of social norms for the ceremony. Confucius said, "Kejifuli" benevolence "," Cardiff the benevolent, already Yuli standing, he seeks to reach people. "(<< Analects? Yan Yuan >>) so the core of benevolence word is" love ", however," Love ", this is the essence of the ceremony. <The Book of Rites? Qu ceremony >> speak: Cardiff ceremony, so given the closeness, the decision too light, not similarities and differences, right and wrong also. "Obviously, the basic value and usefulness of the ceremony is to make social subjects" points ", which the security of its bits, each of their responsibility, making the ceremony due to the hierarchical division of Confucian ethics principal function is the maintenance of the high-grade social privilege, that is, the "little things, cheap things expensive, unscrupulous things Yin." (< <the the Xunzi '? ZENY >>) Therefore, from the point of view of the general body of society, Confucianism rules they set unlimited obligations, which is the Confucian ethics rules Obligation Standard is easy to see, it reinforces absolute monarchy all social subjects must be unconditionally subordinate to superior discipline in one of the monarch, the same time, because the right to self-power setting, it will become less and less, until no; growing political obedience well as the only thing to him. addition, such an obligation is based has also led to the concept of blind obedience of the social body, it makes the people in the day-to-day injunction of others, only a sense of right and wrong, that is, "Evil listen, indecent assault not be Evil deeds. " And this blind obedience values lead to social subjects no selective thinking, do not want to find a way to choose, which severely repressed social subjects should potential. Second, dependent personality.
Ancient society is a monarchical-centered society. Rely on the personality of power and dependency attachment is formed on the basis of personality, is another feature of the traditional political civilization. In traditional societies, state power has been highly concentrated in the hands of the monarch a officials stationed around the country, the only representative of the monarch, and the monarch is responsible, under the so-called "Pu day, does the king of the soil; rate of soil Bin Does it mean that the king Robinson (<< Book of Songs? Kitayama >>), said that this situation monarch high above precedence over his subjects, "Lile conquest by the emperor" (<< Analects? Jishi >>) whole state machinery are rotating around the center of the monarch, with the supremacy of kingship (imperial power). surrender to be known as "China's bread and butter" of the monarchy and its representatives, is the highest and unshakable principles of law. the absolute surrender political power is in this soil, dependent personality grow and develop. Marx profound analysis: small-scale farmers "can not represent themselves, must be someone to represent them and their representatives must be at the same time they dominate standing high above them the authority, unlimited government power, such power to protect them from other classes infringe gave them rain and sunshine , and from above. subjects dependent personality in addition to is the the autocratic power appendage or subjects who sustained serious shackles of patriarchal ethics product, within the family in a traditional society, parents are full of personality by other family members can only bow to obey parents arrangements. "Father called child death, the child does not unfilial death ", within the family is a matter of course. seen, the fear of power, subordination and the family, the father of unconditional obedience subjects can not go beyond the standard values based on these values to generate dependency personality, makes subjects can not go beyond the average narrow-minded, patient dependent, harmonious automorphic naturalistic schema of life, can not go beyond seeking safety and self-sufficiency, pecking the moral and groups based behavior patterns. Its hierarchy.
Regardless of the Oriental society or the Western societies, the strict hierarchy in its traditional political civilization are the most obvious feature of the rule of man to achieve its "legitimacy" to obtain mainly attributed ceremony governance practice. before the Confucian "ceremony" points respectable and humble. "ceremony, are equal there, young and old poor, the rich and the poor, the severity of Jieyou said by also." (<< Xunzi? phase >>) as children, long refused something cheap and refuse your thing, unworthy and refused matter Yin is a person of three ominous (<< Xunzi? Wells Fargo >>) This feature, first became manifest the family exists paradigm in a family at the same time is a social entity, where men are generally superior to women, the elders generally superior to the younger generation. "parent to child Gang husband wife Gang" is not only home to family, but also derived in ancient ethics law which, in ancient China, the country is nothing more than home zoom is nothing more than one of the "father of the emperor, under the thousands of people" home "Therefore, the family identities level can be inferring to the social status hierarchy. social hierarchy that ruler guides also showed between officials and the public that the officer superior to China is particularly important, due to the weakening of social rights and the strengthening of state power between the monarch, and therefore, in the power pyramid structure, they formed the rank of the officers made "hands power to size metrics, the higher the rank of the officers, and the higher the status of" official one people crushed to death.
Second, civil society and political civilization
The bourgeois revolution is a "civil society revolution", waving the banner of "natural rights" and "liberty, equality, fraternity", the civil society freed from the shackles of traditional political elimination of civil society and political state " the same state of alienation, the civil society and political state to obtain a "parallel existence", and ancient society upside down relationship reversed, that civil society by means of reduction for the political purpose of. Which shattered the traditional social bonding the social egoism spirit of the public's fetters, independent and self-interest of the public activities on personalized access to unprecedented liberation, "citizen" also will be announced the main qualifications for independent members of society enjoyment of human rights and civil rights, human dignity and the value of access to the affirmation of the universal significance which not only brought the rapid development of the productive forces, but also accelerate the historical process of liberation from social relations. Undoubtedly, the system of capitalist democracy establish a significant advancement of the political civilization of mankind. opened the dawn of human political civilization after a long night of the Middle Ages in Europe, the Renaissance the Western bourgeois as the forerunner to the Renaissance lift "liberty, equality, democracy, human rights "banner with the the feudal autocratic struggle and victory, in accordance with the sovereignty of the people" of Locke and Rousseau, Montesquieu's "separation of powers" and Mill's "representative theory" to establish a democratic system of capitalism. capitalist society, political civilization beyond the traditional subjects of the three aspects of the social and political civilization. First, rights-based obligations based beyond.
Identity and social era, there is no distinction clear system of state and society, the community of that country, which is isomorphic to the ancient Chinese "home country" is typical of the national society, regardless of this case, the powers from violence, and obligations as the powers of a reverse contemplation naturally as standard. As for right down into the power of a "gift" dispensable in modern society, the first people to recognize their people , the existence of independent value; Secondly, it is also the others as such the main people to recognize and respect their subjectivity, so the universal rights of the people in which is found to dominate all. further words profound social (rights) should no longer be a subsidiary of the countries (powers), but different from that of the independent existence of the country (powers), which itself is the purpose of the undisputed; countries (powers) have full sound, with independent social (rights) based on the presence of significant value for existence, in other words, countries (powers) can only be that stems from the universal rights of the people and serve (to protect the right to limit violence) have value, otherwise, the country (power) lost according to the presence or saying legitimacy.
Second, the independent personality of dependent personality beyond the basic subjects of rights is a natural person, legal rights ultimately can be decomposed into the individual's rights, rights-based concept is the cornerstone of the autonomy of the individual legal personality. Independent personality concept in two ways contribute to the establishment of political civilization: First, the popularity of the concept of personal autonomy personal independence, can promote the respect for the individual personality and the right system set up on this basis, the only country to treat the individual as equal legal personality, the National possible only with the individual subject to the same laws; second is to enable individuals to take positive action to guarding the value of the system, to promote personal system of consciously abide by the spirit to develop. If there is no autonomous individual, then people just object of national rule, or up the country "democratic" object, the system will only exist as a pure mandatory, and thus in a confrontation with the personal. Third, a system of equal hierarchy beyond.
Capitalist society, political civilization, born out of the economic and social goods. Commodity-level economic and political problems of civilization, Marx published profound insight: Commodities born Levellers, also born liberals. "Exchange process" not only respect for freedom and equality, and liberty and equality of its product; it is the basis of the reality of freedom and equality. " consequent equal political system, it is obvious benchmark of modern political civilization on the main relationship. << Universal Declaration of Human Rights in France> > declared at the outset: "in terms of rights, the people born and always free of equality." bourgeois revolution, however, the civil society, "that is, the need, labor, private interests and private rights be seen as the basis of their own existence, see do not need to further elaborate on the course, the premise, so it is seen as the natural foundation. " With the huge differentiation of unrestricted expansion of private rights and private property, people materialized relations replaced real social contact between personalization to extremes, "citizens became self-private slaves, people as social beings in which the field but also lower than his areas where private individuals; Finally, it is not itself people as citizens, but a person who is a member of the community of the public, is the original man, the real person. " Thus, despite everyone showed citizenship and attitude, but their activities and the pursuit was could not get out of the activities of the members of the civil society and the pursuit of public culture "reflects the spirit of self-interest", ability and independent activities of the human body showing the split, one-sided, deformity and alienation development, caused by the excessive development of individualism, people increasingly lonely, insecure, and increasingly suspicious of his position in the universe, the meaning of life, as well as increasingly feel powerless and unimportant. "Derrida pointed out that today's capitalist society, with the top ten drawbacks: capitalism today unemployment in the world is a premeditated (in order to maximize profits and the pursuit of new markets, new technologies and new global competition) disorders; deprivation of the homeless citizens the power to participate in the democratic life of the country's large number indicates that "a borderless new experiences and identity "; economic and trade wars between major economic powers to control the unequal application of international law; capitalist countries in view of the control of the free market's inability to take trade protectionist and interventionist policies; foreign debt and other related mechanisms deterioration of the situation of the majority of mankind is hunger or despair; through electronic technology to make the arms industry and trade (conventional weapons and high-tech precision weapons) was included in the the conventional adjustment range of the Western democratic countries; nuclear proliferation even the state machinery can not control; war intensified due to the original concept of the sky of the ancient community, ethnic - national sovereignty, borders, local, consanguinity; mafia and drug cartels are increasingly spread; international institutions by the manipulation of the capitalist world.  Therefore, the Western capitalist political civilization by passionate and romantic glorification and show off, began to reflect on the pursuit of a harmonious combination of civil society and the political state, people are looking for a new freedom. "Escape from Freedom" Links to free papers Download Center http:// eng.hi138.com, civil society and political civilization
"Political liberation on the one hand people have become members of the civil society, an egoistic, independent individuals, on the other hand, to a citizen, a legal person."  Therefore, do not destroy the servility closed conservative subjects socio-political civilization, can not achieve the conscious development of the personality, people can not become independently create social subjects; while to get out of the narrow, self-serving, the secular public social and political civilization, the independent development of the personality is also bound to be their own restrictions, the main activities will be difficult to overcome the deformity and the one-sided development to become "real citizens" own citizens "should be out of the range of reality, to get rid of this reality, to leave the whole organization into own individuality ". therefore, both autonomous self-reliance but also with social cohesion, both prominent personality and reflects the common" civil society, political civilization, then become a historical necessity. As Marx profoundly pointed out: "Only when the real, individual abstract citizen, and as individuals, living in their own experience, their own personal labor, their own personal relationship middle class existence, and only when the people realize that their original force and This force organizations to become social forces to eliminating social forces as a political force with its own separate, and only at that time, human liberation to complete. "
On the political front, the civil society at least have the following characteristics:
First, get rid of the worship of power to establish the powers of oversight and democratic consciousness of the basic meaning of democracy is the sum of institutional arrangements and values as the foundation of a country's sovereignty in the people and the people it is opposed to any form of personal dictatorship or a party dictatorship, advocated regime China granted (through the electoral system), the policy decision of the people I (MMP) and the government of the people (private ownership of property), the people (of autonomy), and for the people (the powers and rights sharing), in particular, to establish a modern electoral system, to solve the source of power and supervision fundamentally change the long-standing abuse of officials layers of upward dependence, truly establish an emotional tie to the right of the people to the people's interests.
Second, the vast majority of citizens in general awareness of human rights, citizenship and independent personality that people's basic rights of human rights, including the right to liberty, equality, property, security, and the pursuit of happiness and resistance to oppression of human rights is inherent , inalienable human loss of human rights and reduced to slavery (scribe), no longer enjoy freedom. citizenship is part of human rights, statutory rights of citizenship. Independent personality consciousness is to change the individual on the government and the powers of the attachment and fear to change the long-term despotism conditions under the "I", "Grasping", "Shun China" consciousness. Human rights, citizenship awareness or said awareness of their rights and an independent personality consciousness, is the core content of the civic awareness, which is the most important political and cultural conditions for the establishment of constitutional democracy.
Third, the rule of man to abandon the concept of establishing the legal system, the rule of law is to safeguard the legal governance framework of human rights and democracy, it stressed the supremacy of law, the law without partiality and independence of the judiciary, to the right of the legal system, the rule of law and the chief principles of due process. Traditional personal charismatic authority to the transformation of the modern legal-rational authority, requires not only improve the legislation and the establishment of the legal authority of the society, the more important is to ask citizens to gradually establish a modern awareness of the rule of law, the establishment of the rule of faith in the process of socialization, develop in accordance with the law, law-abiding habit of Custodian of the laws on paper into the hearts of legal.
Fourth, establish a sense of responsibility related to the vital interests of every citizen of modern society and the establishment of the constitutional democratic system, to enable all citizens to understand, the acquisition of rights does not fall from the sky, to rely on every citizen to fight, and the enjoyment of the right to must also bear responsibility. every citizen can not shirk its responsibility for the healthy development of society, and the face of the sudden "earthquake" a disaster, few people escape the sense of responsibility demonstrated lack worrying. In a sense, what citizens have what kind of government, what kind of polity. Only when citizens generally have a sense of responsibility, will have a responsible government and responsible form of government.
The course of the transformation from a traditional society to a modern society has been difficult to take a hundred years to reflect on this history, we find that there is a link has been seriously neglected, that is "modern" we do not nurture a modern meaning citizen, was not able to cultivate self-esteem, self-discipline, self-improvement, since the individual wins, was not able to cultivate personal independence and freedom not only to assert their rights, to bear their own responsibility. therefore calls for civic awareness, improve citizenship, has increasingly become the subject of China's modernization process should not be overlooked and the modern needs of the awakening of the whole nation, need reflection of the whole nation, and today we are building socialist political civilization is an urgent need for socialist political civilization is an advanced kinds of political civilization. establishment of the socialist system in the history of human civilization, first denied the political system of the level of oppression to a new face different from the nature of the political system of any repression on the political stage in the human society. This change of political civilization in the institutional determine a basic mode of political civilization, the human political practice is no longer followed in another system of exploitation of the cycle instead of a system of exploitation cycle. Socialist exhibit political awareness, scientific attitude and self-development, and continue to overcome dogmatism. socialist ideology from Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and Jiang Zemin's "Three Represents" thought, all the Theoretical Quality political orientation, the socialist deny that Chongshang Jiang rights, exploitation, publicity polarized political philosophy, the distinctive value tendency of social justice, social equality, common prosperity of society, showing the history and progress of the political civilization of mankind requirements. on the status of political actors, the socialist negation of dictatorship in the form of a small number of people, the first to implement a form of the dictatorship of the majority of the small number of people, the political civilization of mankind truly ensure the dominance of the majority of the population. society seek the dominant position of the overwhelming majority of the people's democratic political doctrine, marks the progress and development of human political civilization has reached a new evolutionary heights. socialism with Chinese characteristics under the correct leadership of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, on behalf of the leaders of three generations get closer and wide road of the development of political civilization in November .2002 Jiang Zemin is the 16th CPC National Congress report solemnly pointed out that "the development of socialist democratic politics and building socialist political civilization, is an important goal of building a moderately prosperous society , developing socialist democratic politics, the most fundamental is the need to uphold the leadership of the party to unify the people are the masters and the rule of law. "Obviously, this idea marked the Chinese communists have been able to follow the trend of the world, and consciously socialist political civilization, consciously in the system of civilization and the combination of the concept of civilization, thus creating a new situation of the development of political civilization of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The leadership of the Party is the fundamental guarantee of the people are the masters and the rule of law.
Communist Party of China strive to practice the "Three Represents" and it is the most qualified and most capable of leading the people of the rule of law, the party leadership has true democracy, the rule of law to achieve decisive the role of the Communist Party of China, is to lead and support the people are the masters, the most widely mobilize and organize the people to manage state and social affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings, maintenance, and the fundamental interests of the masses of the people. Party social an important pillar of democracy and legal system building, the only party to the will and strength of all the people gather together to achieve the status of the people are the masters provide effective safeguards to ensure the correct direction of the rule of law and its effective implementation of The people are the masters is an essential requirement of socialist democratic politics. practice the sovereignty of the people is the fundamental symbol of social and political form of civilization leap to the historical period of socialism our Constitution clearly states: "All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people." people's headed for master both the substantive content of the socialist rule of law. socialist democracy as a national system, the political premise of the rule of law, a strong driving force and value criteria; socialist democracy as a public decision-making mechanism, will help improve the quality of legislation; socialist Democracy also help cultivate citizens' awareness of the law and the formation of an effective state power supervision. Rule of law is the basic strategy of the Party led the people to govern the country.
Rule of law in this Party led the people to the basic strategy of governing the country, reflects the understanding of the development of human society and the laws of socialist construction of the party and the country, reflecting the party ruling law grasp is also based on the correct judgment on the social development of the party and summed up running the country, ruling the policy. rule of law, the broad masses of the people under the leadership of the party, in accordance with the Constitution and the law, by various ways and forms of management national affairs, economic and cultural undertakings and social affairs, to ensure that the work of the State in accordance with the law, and the progressive realization of the socialist democracy institutionalized and legalized. rule of law and adhere to the leadership of the party and the people are the masters in the fundamental one hand, the rule of law is a strong guarantee to strengthen and improve the party's leadership, it can be the policy of the party with the authority of a higher, more stability, more explicitly normative and operability, and The leadership of the party to provide a smoother implementation mechanism. On the other hand, has the the state coercive force of law, of any activities of political parties and social organizations have certain constraints, any political parties and social organizations must be in the Constitution and the laws within the scope of activities, the leadership of the party is only included in the orbit of the rule of law in order to avoid fall into the quagmire of the "rule of man" to establish and improve the socialist political civilization, this may be a long process, but after all we have been on the road Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com