Rousseau and Modern Chinese Literature

          Western culture, the greatest impact on modern Chinese intellectual is Huxley's 'Evolution and Ethics perish' and Rousseau's 'Social Contract'. In 1898, Rousseau's 'Social Contract' (modern translation 'Social Contract') was introduced to China, they promote the 'natural rights', 'popular sovereignty' thinking had no different from that to the 'terminally ill' in ancient China opened a 'recipe', so that China's intellectual 'like a long spell of drought seedlings, the sudden Kam Yu'.
        Rousseau's 'Social Contract' has exerted worldwide influence, from the united states 'Declaration of Independence' to France's 'Declaration of Human Rights', are all left a profound mark on Rousseau's ideas. Rousseau's 'China about perish' Meiji era was brought to Japan, also produced a great video out to become Japan's freedom of the important theoretical support for the civil rights movement.
        On present understanding, the Chinese name of the earliest knowledge of Rousseau in 1878, Guangxu four years (1878) in April, the Qing government ambassador to Britain, and France's Minister of Guo Song-tao in his diary on Rousseau's story has been documented. In 1898, the Shanghai Bureau of engraving with the instruments, the 'China Yodthong discussion', the book, excerpts from the Japanese Meiji era of well-known in the Enlightenment thinkers of the Han River Atsusuke Sawamoto 'China is about to decode', 'Social Contract' formally introduced into China . 'China about perish' is the first complete Chinese translation of the 'road Faso China about perish' is the Yang Tingdong students studying in Japan, according to a translation of the Japanese translation of the original potential from Sichuan, in 1902 by the Shanghai Bookstore Publishing civilization. In 1918, Ma Junwu translation of 'full-length Rousseau China about perish' published by the Zhonghua Book Company.
        From the beginning of the 20th century to introduce the ideas of Rousseau's life and research articles continue to emerge. With the introduction and study of Rousseau's theory boom, Rousseau's name and image began with a sacred aura: High-density appeared in modern Chinese literature, mainly in the following areas:
        (A) claim Restoration, the pursuit of the democratic revolution of the intellectuals would be Rousseau's doctrine of salvation as a 'cure-all treasure party', in the poetry warmly praised Rousseau, expression following Rousseau, to join the revolution, the ardent desire and firm determination.
        Early 20th century, China's most influential Enlightenment propagandists Liang very high regard for Rousseau, he was in exile after the failure of the Hundred Days Reform in Japan, by 'Japan Rousseau' in the thinking of Jiang Zhaomin influence on Rousseau's theory is extremely enshrines, in the 'Ching Yee reported that' and ' Xinmin newspaper 'published in' the case of Rousseau's school ',' China about perish giant Rousseau's doctrine of 'whom publicity and other articles. In the 'Do not stay in Norway, Lu Lu Han Liang Jen-nan,' 4 quater, Liang as Rousseau as a 'precedent', resolved to follow the example of Rousseau: 'nurture this century who is Xiao Gong? China (Washington DC) Take (Napoleon) Total cofactor, Lu (Rousseau) Meng (Montesquieu) real precedent. Bare cast a new brain, LEIN exterminate the ancient magic, Wu Chai sleep, the negative of this multi-nationals'. His' confession 'in Rousseau also expressed feelings of deep respect and admiration:' European Modern heal the nation than a dozen hands,: I, as his side were best suited to today's China, with the people but Mr. Lu Suo of About On the peace '.
        Another disciple of Kang Han Ju also essays' Rousseau's theory of 'large increases in praise of Rousseau's praise:' Asian countries covered today's civilization, a system, which claims not 'Social Contract' spirit can also be peaceful? Alas! Rousseau who can be described as sages carry on '. 'Poetic Revolution' in the impressive, was Liang described as 'Modern poetry three heroes', one of the JIANG have studied in Japan by by Rousseau's thinking, his most famous poems is the song 'Rousseau': 'the world are Yusha, France, a Rousseau. 'China is about' advocated a new justice, Regal sweep the old pride. Force such as road fill, blood filling the free seedlings. Text Qigong Day. Wave of global revolution '.
        JIANG by 'Rousseau' has been outstanding the last two sentences of the bourgeois revolution, the introduction of his propagandists Zou Rong's 'Revolutionary Army preface', by Zou Rong passionate in the book with full political enthusiasm to promote Rousseau's 'natural rights' , freedom and equality doctrine, he strongly praised Rousseau, well expressed by Rousseau, the revolutionary banner of the determination: 'Large-Zhe Fu Lu Sao Zhu righteous cause of the micro-west, in order to revive the elixir, and return to the soul also soul treasure side ... ... then I requested the Executive As many of Rousseau's philosophy treasure streamers, to flutter in my Divine Land''Revolutionary Army 'at the time played a enlightening.'s role, Lu Xun once remarked:' If said that the impact, then another thousand words, probably arrived in straightforward, however Qian Jin the 'revolutionary army in pawn' Zou Rong made the 'Revolutionary Army''.
        Used as a 'female sector Rousseau's' Outstanding Woman of the modern revolutionary and poet Qiu Jin the same reverence Rousseau, her well-known people poem '. Hanging Wu Yue martyrs' in such a poem: 'Rousseau's writing is the Polish blood. Fight to head for song of victory' . Her storytelling 'Jingwei Stone' wrote: 'I recently concept of Europe and USA, and many books that the right to freedom, and made men and women are equal, unbiased benefit and the right talent. 'Can be seen, she thought, and Rousseau is a clock, not geography.
        Modern Literature in the history of organized program of the bourgeois revolution in literary societies is also sang in praise of the Southern Society of poets Rousseau, a famous poet, leader of Liu Yazi poetry since a young age from the admiration of Rousseau, and even renamed the 'human rights', No. 'Yalew' ( namely Asia Rousseau) to Ming Xin-Zhi, who repeatedly praise poem Rousseau, praising Rousseau, such as' the first person to Rousseau, the bronze statue of Lu Wei days. 'China is about' hit-hung with, cause and Jun-Min Lu. Embryo revolutionary army, and all husks and chaff. For centuries European, happy days Hui Zhang. 'Again' in the beginning of intellectual revolution, and want to broadcast virtue of the text wave. Home write down the Republican standard a new, authoritarian Regal sweep the old pride. False Nations Millennium Qiu Lu Zheng, Chuan-Xin a pulse thanks to Rousseau. For Shuibu Cheng Han Xiao sleep, since children of Wu Bai-Lian knife '. Southern Society, another famous poet poem GAO also praised Rousseau, to express themselves should take Rousseau as a model for the overthrow of the feudal dynasty ruled not hesitate to shed its blood aspiration: 'in the Xia Xia wind was too cold, since then stimulated a 1000 LU Sao. For large well-developed civil rights, independence of independent voices clamor. The National People's Public permission from Hung Kam-rising tide '. Poem stirring the tragic heroic generosity of gas.
        (B) In the modern novel, drama, enshrines the author of Rousseau is often through the mouth of the works to promote positive character Rousseau's ideas and theories, expression of democracy, freedom, equality and the warm longing, such as Li Baojia's 'A Short History of Civilization', Lingnan collard Female 10's 'Eastern European female hero', Chen Tianhua the 'Lion throat', as well as Liu Yazi script 'new daughter Songling Legend', etc.
        'A Short History of Civilization' is a modern novel, one of the four Li Baojia everyone works, the main irony of the upper class posing as a fake pro-Western reformers, as well as fear of bureaucracy outside of social psychology, and to some extent, reveals the contradiction between old and new ideas . The novel is also shaped by a number of positive character image and sustenance in them their ideals, and through them to express their beliefs on the reformers, princes Pu is one of them. Princes Pu is a democracy, progressive thinking and rebellious spirit of youth, like to read Rousseau's' Social Contract)), and personally. Fiction 25th back to their own nunnery to write his book, preach the truth of Rousseau: 'reasoning you are also an individual, I am also a person, but you were born in smaller families, more than I am poor, so you have to do my home boy . I was only two more than you money, you will like the same as those who are not parents, should do I was born in ... ... I have to tell you that the truth of equality, for fear you do not know, only the owner will not be met with arrest, I it wants to but I '. Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com
        'Eastern Europe, female hero' is written by a Ms. Lingnan feathers political novels, mainly Russian-nothing partisan story of Sophia, criticized the feudal autocratic system itself, advocating revolution. Novel first chapter, the Russian revolutionaries nothingness Xi Mi Qing Ming of Chinese women students said something, that her desire and pursuit: 'sister to hear from the United Kingdom, France from Voltaire to bring the kinds of free and return, when another Montesquieu, Rousseau thinkers Wensheng advocacy, since it fashions awakens their stance simply immersed the people, so his sister and a few comrades of a tour is determined to Paris, visit to that sage of the left trace, find the mouth of the people that day said that even a last wish that Roland's grave, pay tribute something to the table that we really admired '. 'Eastern Europe, female hero' Although only five back, the book has not yet completed, but at the time of the bourgeois-democratic revolutionary movement become increasingly high, we still had a significant impact.
        '狮子吼 ' is a bourgeois revolution, advocates and political activists, Tien-Hua Chen body of a chapter back to the novel is a classic political novels. Learn from the Japanese political fiction novel 'snow-mei' in writing, to the way the flashbacks begin, first fifty years after liberation narrative of the Chinese nation prosperous prosperous scene, and then return to Syria and the story beginning to end, describing the war that will throw into confusion and a number of Di the bourgeois revolution, the revolutionary intellectuals in civil rights activities in the village to carry out the process of democratic revolution and shows the distinct ideas. Di wrote the novel that they will throw into confusion the establishment of self-will, of speech, of the publicity Rousseau's 'Social Contract', organize a series of revolutionary activities. People's practice is clearly the book the author's well-designed, from hopes of overthrowing the feudal autocratic monarchy and establish the ideal of a bourgeois democratic republic, but the novel shows the beginning of the wealthy and strong country then contains a moving picture of Rousseau's doctrine of the land of China ' flowering ', a beautiful blending, Italy.
          Liu Yazi script 'daughter of the legendary Songling new' is the first Quben case, the play is only a 'Dan', braided hair suit, claiming to be 'the right to Xie Ping' is affected to accept new ideas, the pursuit of new women women's liberation. Play her 'Rousseau' self-ratio, sang: 'singing freedom songs, towel State Rousseau, difficult to pull back to days Luyang Ge'. You Yun: 'I think the Chinese oldest empire, the plot for thousands of years the menace of tyranny, literal-minded fair fallacies put the innate rights of citizens, free nature of the pack too clean', she thinks the hope of national prosperity lies in the emancipation of women, 'not as good as Dousoujingshen , power sports, open up female wisdom, back women's rights, women's one-chang, the national potential self-shing, is also not afraid of Hydra seal hog government, lion fierce duck its powerful neighbor, the '.
        In addition, Zeng Pu's historical novels 'Nie Hai Hua' also referred to Rousseau's 'Social Contract', but with a different perspective of the above-mentioned works, which is written, hold reformist character of Rousseau's 'Social Contract' disgruntled, and even be regarded as a scourge. Zeng Pu is a modern well-known novelist and reproduction Sawaie. Chen had to follow the French Quarter with the study of literature, under the guidance of the teacher read the writings of Rousseau, he wrote ((A Flower 'is to reveal his opposition to the Qing dynasty, feudalism revolution in the tendency for the then burgeoning democratic revolutionary movement fueled. Author Chen is also the novel by the mouth of thousand years to express his revolutionary idea: 'Now, my roots arrived is unclear, that is a good system of government to the extreme, but also for the whole wedding, on its own people no good, so no need to creep feed are nothing short of that only by Perak means, wake-up call two hundred years dream to eliminate tens of millions of fishy good at, built-Ling calls to 100 knot are solutions for the Asian leader of an alliance does not hang? '
        Interestingly, Rousseau's 'China about perish' and sometimes as the props appear as characters in works of 'democracy', 'revolution' symbol. Wuxi, Jiangsu Province Zhang Zhaotong in 1904 were written in 'free marriage' narrative a pair of young people over Joined Ming forces carried out revolutionary activities against the book there is such a plot, heroes of the Yellow Peril to the peerless hero heroine Marie Meiren Guan Guan home, 'are reflected in its wall hung with two astronomy to atlas, ancient and modern female hero of the camera stuff, desk lists the various general textbooks and 'political Brief', 'China is about on the lecture notes', 'Popular History of the French revolution,' and other books ... .... 1906 Social print and publish the new novel back to this community of 10 novels 'constitutional mirror' main narrative of the pseudo-reformers were all the ugly people, have been traveling to write novels in English, French, Belgium, Germany and Asian countries as one of the protagonist Jin constitutional, after returning home to Shanghai to visit the national level, as luck would 'wrong road head, strayed into Liberty Village', 'see the owner of a few on the' Social Contract ', the hearts of people try to speculate on how the Department of the night asking a dream encounter rebel Revolutionary Party, the constitutional legislation does not become a '.
        (C) of Rousseau's literary image of the wedge in the novel, the characters in the novel, propaganda and revolutionary ideas, to sow democracy and fire, such as Rui-Qing of the ((bloodstain flowers', Wai Yan's' Rousseau soul 'and so on.
        Rui-Qing's 'bloodstain flowers' main narrative of university students in Paris under the US Fujimori as the French Revolution. To write a wedge in France July 14 Chinese women students in the French Revolution anniversary, looking back to their homeland has been carved up, heartache of the pole, dream Rousseau, with his talk about breaking the tyranny of the chi, wake up after that a book 'bloodstain Flower ', then has compiled the historical facts of which the revolution.
        Part of the social fiction out Huairen 'Rousseau Soul' is a positive propaganda and revolutionary ideas of the book, writing on the use of the absurd magical practices in order to impaired eyes and ears, 'wedge on the pretext of Rousseau's ghost came to the East and Huang Zongxi, Chin-hung, Chen She, together, formed a comrade, prepared to overthrow the underworld of the monarchy, in order to Hades Suoqin, fled to earth, performed the story title of 'Rousseau's soul' that is present in this'.
        In modern Chinese history and culture-specific context, Rousseau's 'Social Contract' to fill the void of faith the Chinese people to China, hygiene hope. Therefore, the introduction of Rousseau's ideas and to promote the clear color with a utilitarian, it is in this sense, Rousseau, modern Chinese literature to get an unprecedented high status in the poetry was known as 'heal the nation's hands', he the 'Social Contract' is to 'cure-all treasure party', the novelist who is in his works by people leaving the mouth of a small spare no effort to propagate his doctrine. However, for diehard China, the revolution, not a bounce in respect of the easy task, not to mention Rousseau's political theory itself is extremely rich in complexity, in practice there are considerable disadvantages, therefore, with the further development of the situation, Rousseau, and He's 'Social Contract' in China began to fade out the ideological and political arena, naturally, in the Chinese literature, stage, sound ni Rousseau also tracks sales followed, but he left behind in China's modern literature is indelible traces . Reposted elsewhere in the paper for free download http://eng.hi138.com

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