Papers Category:Culture Papers
- Chinese History Papers
Post Time:2013/4/15 8:38:00
In China, thinking about the fate of ancient times, there has always been associated with this knowledge, the so-called "life science" (numerology, fortune tellers school) hanging by a thread. Broadly speaking, this knowledge is "learning" "technique" or "Road" "" "learning" or "Road" is about the fate of thinking and explanation, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism doctrine, especially in the second phase of the Confucianism of Science occupies an important place, "skill" or "the operational level, the literature is mostly found in subsections surgery book, roughly forecast, mainly reflected in the specific behavior of divination, fortune-teller. narrow , "life science" refers only to reflect in surgery several types of book, to predict based "knowledge" to the end of the Qing era of transformation of knowledge about the fate of the "Studies" there is still some space, differentiation in the Western in the different areas of the modern discipline, and "skill" in the new era and modern Polyclinic system almost no living space. Such a state would no doubt make "life science" being marginalized. resulting changes brought about not only reading survival trajectory change, and associated with the fate of modern Chinese intellectuals thinking and individual behavioral changes associated with this. Therefore, the study of knowledge Transition "life science" marginalization, academic considerable significance.
Context of age, knowledge transformation
Overall, in ancient China, the state of mind of the reader's physical and mental home countries in one, emphasis on learning and human unity, Liyan, meritorious service, Leader of the Trinity, the highest state of Rucker., Self, family, country, world and reading for school integration, there is no obvious conflict, the reading on the fate of thinking and initiatives into learning and human unity, "life science" as a form of knowledge, it is natural presence as either a metaphysical Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and various doctrine of destiny or fate as physical divination, fortune-teller predicted behavior, in the field of view of the reader's life there is normal, and even become part of their day-to-day cultivation. "life science" in the metaphysical and physical, where they are coordinated, Neo-Confucian concept can explore life, transportation, sex, love, life practice divination, fortune-teller forecasting activities.
Such a situation the transition period to the end of the Qing knowledge changes with the reading on the identity of the transition to the modern intellectuals, their identity and adhering to the values change, "life science" will not be able to maintain the kind of status, and had marginalized Of course, such changes can not be separated from the context of age of the knowledge economy. The so-called knowledge economy.
Refers to knowledge systems change, the intellectual content of the update, and the manifestations of change in China, the inherent knowledge system changes, namely the modern Western knowledge system approach and shift its core academic system changes, but also some scholars have called the Academic Transformation. general, the end of the Qing the knowledge transition period in China, its core is a form of classical west by the modern form of conversion, that is, from the classics, history, children, set four of the school to text conversion of the seven subjects of science, law, business, agriculture, engineering, medical science this transition has generally been about 20 years, from 1898 to 1919 years ago (the Reform Movement to the May Fourth Movement During the New Culture Movement), by the end of the Qing Dynasty, early efforts of two generations to complete., Chinese Academic out from the classical form, into modern form, until today, has formed a new academic tradition. Knowledge transformation was the result of the upheaval of the times, of course is a major factor.
Modern China, internal and external, without a break, especially the impact of external forces, Li Hongzhang so-called "three thousand years a major change in the situation," Tseng Chi-tse so-called "Five thousand years No Chong Bureau, no doubt reflecting the external shocks caused a huge shock to Chinese society under vibration, all parties in the event of either explicitly or implicitly change the knowledge system is no exception. changes in the knowledge system, Western Be the catalyst.
Despite the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, the Western China have a certain degree of spread, but the scope and content of the spread is very limited, failed to change the majority of the Chinese scholar's knowledge of the original structure, but after the Opium War, this situation occurred fundamental change on the one hand, the spread of Western efforts to dramatically increase the other hand, some Chinese scholars began to seriously examine two kinds of Chinese and Western culture, explore the significance of Western cultural progress, Western learning to self-improvement, especially after the Sino-Japanese War and the 1898 Movement, scholar of Western universal reaction, consciously accept and the introduction of Western heterogeneous cultures as different from the traditional Chinese culture, the large-scale introduction of Western and moderate acceptance, making the knowledge structure of the traditional school system and development trends historic change, leading to new knowledge systems and the emergence of the subject classification.
So-called new knowledge systems and disciplines classification is formed by the modern Western knowledge systems and disciplines classification seventy to eighty years of the nineteenth century Westernization Movement period, the concept of academic Division has begun for some Chinese reading to understand and accept, such as Zheng concept should be in the >> << examination made in 1884, opening that goes: "the law of the West were admitted a number of subjects, all first-pass ARTS mathematics, and then listen to what they like, loyal Arts. heavy weapons in the text, the Navy Cheng not only for the Western Academic Classification Sense deep understanding, but also to accept the Western specific concept of a branch of its Division of the Arts established the principle of science, so he proposed reform of the imperial examination program in the land "(1). the proposition designed to test Western after the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895, with the West translate the increase and expansion of the scale of the Transmission of Western Civilization, Modern Western Academic Classification Sense as more and more Chinese scholars to understand and accept. they started to break China's inherent "classics, history, sub-set of" classification, analysis of the Chinese traditional knowledge with Western concepts of knowledge, such as Yan Fu Evolution and Ethics will be << >> << swarm school of Sociology words >> << social Fu >> << Muller Ming Xue >> Western social science writings Translation to the nation, often through the preface, explanatory notes, editor's note, the folder Note and the form of increasingly invoked secondary content, compared with the Western control, confirmed in << days play on the preface >>, he will have this assertion: "and the concept of the West names science, reflected in inquiring the matter, within the art of Zhou Yan, the art of the outer Zhou Yan ....... is push the volume onwards, saying: Kazuya The solid I << >> << >> science of the Spring and Autumn also moved to the so-called the implicit explicit, outside Zhou, the so-called push to see to the hermit, Zhou "(2). Yan Fu such discussion in academia have a greater response, ZHANG, pei, Liang Qichao, Wang Guowei academic all follow this path to do a lot of a blend of Chinese and Western academic work the Huitong Chinese and Western academic classification criteria with modern Western disciplines, try to build China's own new knowledge systems, such as Liu Shi-pei sequence >> << weekend academic history, to borrow accepted modern concept of the Western Division to the contrary, the traditional Chinese academic, will be the weekend academic divided into psychology, ethics, On science, sociology, religious studies, Political Science and Law, Accountancy, military science, education, management science, philosophy of science, Shushu, philology, technology, law, articles and other 16 class (3), China's inherent by the history of science is configured to modern Western disciplinary system and the knowledge system.
Of course, the new system of academic disciplines and knowledge systems alone some scholars call can not be set up, also requires adequate system to protect their open up the path. In this regard, the establishment of new schools and the implementation of the new academic structure, play a key role for self-reliance and the need for change, during the Westernization Movement have been some new schools have set up 1898 Movement began to set up China's first school - Imperial University. Obviously, the tradition of classical studies, history, zhuzixue the word Chapter and other does not apply to these new school, so these school have set up in accordance with the Western Division Legislative learn the principles and the Division scholarship concept courses. Gradually, not only of new schools so traditional College beginning in Lent set school, sub-vegetarian scholarship, to change the old curriculum, opening up new subjects. development of this situation, and ultimately led to the birth of the new academic structure for the new academic structure to follow the example of Japan, Europe and the United States school curriculum is modeled, the inherent "classics, history, children, set "as the representative of the four school eventually turn to" culture, science, law, business, agriculture, engineering, medicine, including seven subjects learn "Since then, China embarked on a new academic system in accordance with this Division path of development until the period of the May Fourth New Culture Movement, Peking University, represented by the modern university system to establish the basic curing a variety of Western Division as well as the study of traditional knowledge "Taking Stock" become a consensus, modern Chinese academic has truly established together.
Transformation in the knowledge system at the same time, the reader's identity is also changing, from the conversion of "disabilities" as "intellectuals" in traditional Chinese society, reading in the first scholars, farmers, workers, suppliers society sequence, with irreplaceable role, but at the end of the Qing social change, along with the establishment of the modern education system, compared to the ancient imperial examination system is abolished, a direct consequence of the abolition of the imperial examination system as the the Simin first "Guests were greatly impact four social groups of scholars, farmers, industry, commerce, and cause as the basic elements of the disintegration of the traditional social structure. "waste imperial Hing direct social significance of the school is to fundamentally change the orientation of the rise of social change, cut off 'disabilities' social origin, so "who" gradually became a historical category, instead of the modern education system train intellectuals, "the gradual disappearance of the disabilities and intellectuals Community emergence of modern Chinese society is different from one of the most important features of the traditional society "⑤ as the free movement of groups in the community, the composition of the intellectuals and the social function of natural and disabilities are very different, they are no longer the officials sources Simin first, longer take political responsibility for a wide range of social educational function and rule the world, but has become indispensable for professionals in all aspects of social life and to contribute to society, to his own professionalism, due to changes in the identity and function, most of them do not knowledge system "Walter", and became experts in the different fields. "Guests" Walter "School is supposed to Slim and His integrated the intellectuals" experts "learn more and more market one concept of inherent Slim scholarship gradual transition as the two are separated.
In other words, the end of the Qing Dynasty of knowledge economy era, most of the emerging intellectuals "Walter" conversion "experts" to study and scholarship become a professional behavior, not only associated with self-cultivation, even with the country and the world gradually more separation. This, of course, with modern Western knowledge and values. standard becoming dominant inseparable. Western-oriented to become a more common phenomenon so rationally and emotionally, in the practice of life, can not completely rational, traditional factors still a large number of reservations. rational knowledge and sensual practice contradictions, making the separation of some intellectuals on the fate of rational thinking and practice, "life science" and therefore unable to maintain the integrity of the past, only towards the edge.
Classification of knowledge and life science marginalization
In ancient China, the thinking and controversy about the fate of "never stopped one hundred from the Pre-Qin to the Qing Dynasty Confucian dynasties reading all left thinking and practice records, and presented a variety of face into the China's inherent knowledge systems.
Inherent knowledge systems formed very early, Jaspers said "Axial Age" on the occasion of the Spring and Autumn, and this system should be classified or Division is synchronized with the Han dynasty has become, at least in perfect, embodied in the books as the umbrella of the knowledge classification the end of the Western Han Dynasty, Liu Xiang, Liu Xin and his son compiled seven << >> slightly, already is quite specialized books Categories << 7 >> Series << >> slightly, slightly >> << Six Arts, << Zhuzi slightly >> << poems in >> << slightly Bingshu >>, << astrology slightly >> << technical side , which generalized "life learning" related ideas and knowledge in << Six Arts slightly >> << Yi >> << >> << Poetry >> << ceremony >> >> , Spring and Autumn << >> << Analects >> books and << Zhuzi slightly >> contained in Confucianism, Taoism, Naturalists, legalism, Mohist philosophers doctrine, even in << Poetry and Rhapsody slightly Qu Yuan is Ji >> distinct reflected narrow "life science" knowledge is concentrated in the category of the five elements, Achillea turtle, miscellaneous accounts >> << astrology slightly, categories is slightly >> << astrology core content rheological study of Chinese life science, surgery several types of changes in knowledge and direction is the key to the inspection should be said that the knowledge system of the Qin and Han Dynasty China has been substantially divided into metaphysical "Road" and the metaphysical "This is reflected in << Qi Lue >> six parts families in (5), Six Arts (Six Classics) and the highest position of philosophers, as the source of the academic Six Classics and the Six Classics tributaries philosophers, constitute the "Road" in the knowledge system, the number of patients, the technical side of the class was "status relatively low ⑥ Nevertheless, even with the number of << surgery slightly> > after all of 7 << >> one slightly, compared to future generations, this is a period of the surgery several types of knowledge of the highest standing, also be seen as a "life study" of the highest standing period.
The << Tang Dynasty Xiuzhuan the Sui Shu Jing Ji Zhi >> Qin Dynasty to the early Tang Dynasty books to sort out, and establish a system and a knowledge classification system of the Academic Division of the Sui and Tang dynasties In this system, economics, history, sub-set of four classification replace the Han Dynasty << Qi Lue >> classified until the Qing Dynasty, four always been used from the point of view of "life science" generalized "life science" of knowledge and ideas in the classics, history, sub- set of four are distributed, and narrow "life learning" enumerate the five elements of the study are listed in subsections under that surgery several types of knowledge in a large class of slightly >> << seven, reduced a small group of sub-men from the point of view of the "Road" and "see, the metaphysical" said "knowledge rapid growth in the number and the proportion of such books is reflected in the four directories are rising rapidly, on the contrary the metaphysical knowledge slow increase in the number of subcategories in the directory, the status of naturally reduce heavy "Road" is not heavy "concept is increasingly strengthening inseparable, especially in the background of the imperial examination. in the the << Sikuquanshuzongmu >> the Qing Dynasty Compiling the << Sikuquanshu >> formed, four have been greatly improved, reaching the highest level of the classification of Chinese ancient books. where the << Sikuquanshuzongmu >>, and generalized "life science related knowledge and ideas are still scattered in the classics, history, children, set four of them, and narrow" life science-related knowledge are concentrated in subsections surgery several categories, including "accounting for climate, relative house the tomb of phase", "divination", "life book with the book," yin and yang "subheading of this sub-law << Sui Jing Ji Zhi >> same strain, narrow life learn the status of knowledge in the books category has not changed since the Tang Ji Yun << Sikuquanshu Head subparts total Syria >> logical relationship on philosophical knowledge systems analysis, that "Confucian", "military commander", "legalism", "farm", "medical home", "Astronomical Algorithms these six are Statecraft all things, the most important in subsections knowledge system 100 square technology, or useful or useless, and a long line of actually waste management is difficult, times the number of patients, recreation also learned I do is a technology ecstatic, or blending Road, the times to art " In his view, these two types of knowledge are considerable trail "(7) Road, made the remarks revealed deep-rooted concept of control, and as the number of patients, knowledge or helpful or unhelpful", it is difficult conclusions, only a long line of reason difficult to actually waste "as the reason included in subsections we can see that such knowledge is in the minds of the position, we can see the narrow sense of life" status.
Despite the Head >> << Sui Shu Jing Ji Zhi >> and << Sikuquanshu of classification, the sort illustrates the narrow "life science" rather peripheral position, but after all, "said a long line, actually waste management is difficult" or grand subsections knowledge to the end of the Qing knowledge transition, this has become a problem exists, ignore or get rid of the object.
Modern knowledge transformation is a complex process, various intellectuals of the late Qing Dynasty on the introduction of Western improved secondary and even transform secondary speech always without a break, but to truly implement the institutional level is to the time of the New Deal in the Late Qing, embodied in the new academic structure on the development and implementation of .1901 years, the Qing government decided to implement the New Deal, and the abolishment of imperial examinations, promote school as an important measure of development and implementation of a new charter school on the agenda. efforts such as Zhang Zhidong finally developed a series of new charter school in 1903, and petitioned the Qing << played the the Imperial charter school >> << Articles of Association >> Imperial Higher School promulgation and implementation in the name of the construction of a new academic structure look set the Scholastic Regulations Hall, eight subjects on setting disciplines, Political Studies, Literature, Medicine, Branch Gezhi, agricultural, engineering, business points from eight Division disciplines, China inherent academic classics, history, literature preserved by disciplines and cultural disciplines, the introduction of various types of Western finalized in the Political Section, medical, Branch Gezhi, agricultural, engineering, business, so, by , history, children set for the skeleton 'the four science of' knowledge system is tolerant to the Western disciplines classified as the backbone of the 'eight families learn new knowledge system "(8) into this new knowledge systems, knowledge of the metaphysical dimensions of life "due to dispersion inherent in classical studies, history, literature, it is still a place by disciplines and cultural disciplines. sub-school ostracized, not as a subject included in the of Studies of the surgery several types of knowledge will not be able to enter the system, resulting in the narrow sense of "life learning" and the new knowledge system missed. Zhang Zhidong "Eight subjects of the study" program established in the Republic of China after correction early .
1913, Ministry of Education announced >> << University Order, the Statutes of the University of << >> set by the University of disciplines and their categories were principle shall be decided on the university canceled by the subjects, divided into arts, science, law, business, agricultural, engineering, medical and other seven subjects. Since then, the Chinese academic began to get rid of the shackles of classical studies, creation of similar to the modern Western disciplines and knowledge systems In these seven subjects, the liberal arts are divided into four philosophy, literature, history, geography, Chinese academic system inherent in classical studies, history, child learn and learn set of general "liberal arts" ablation, indicating that the four the school "has been incorporated into the seven subjects learn knowledge systems, modern Western knowledge systems from traditional knowledge systems to track." life learning "metaphysical level of knowledge and ideas continue to exist inclusive by being, history, children, set philosophy, literature, history, especially for the "destiny", "fortune telling" of thinking about Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, be included in the basic philosophical category. philosophical thinking prevails, metaphysical "life science" began to enter a new world. As for the narrow sense to surgery several types of knowledge and practice, as the representative of the "life science", still unable to achieve the transition in modern times, failed to enter the new knowledge system. completely exclude the situation of mainstream knowledge systems, this "life science" completely marginalized.
Modern Western knowledge systems really play a practical utility in academic research in China, Peking University began during the New Culture Movement evolved from the Imperial University of Peking University in the early years of the Republic, is still a bureaucratic develop "until the end of 1916, Cai Yuanpei became president of Peking University, the spirit of" University research profound knowledge of the purpose of transformation of Peking University, Peking University China academic research center in the Ministry of Education announced the Division the principle of real implementation of the basic curing a variety of Western disciplines, teaching, scientific research in this one, the modern university system established in the New Culture Movement big advocate of "democracy" and "science", opposed to the old ethics, ethics atmosphere, as the representative of the North Western disciplines classification and research orientation increasingly solid. contrast, as one of the representatives of the old culture, the traditional "life science" can only become more decline, not only the narrow sense of life "difficult space, "Destiny", "Numerology" is metaphysical thinking, but also due to the and Western Philosophy heavy body, re-understanding, does not match the fundamental orientation of the weight method is the so-called "philosophy of life" difficult philosophical lecture on the dominant position. can be said that the marginalization of life in modern China on the occasion of the end of the knowledge economy. inevitable fate. Reposted elsewhere in the Research Papers Download http://eng.hi138.com
Third, the identity of the reading, the change in attitude and life the decline of learning "
Accompanied with the knowledge of the transition process, the reader's identity is also changing, traditional taxi to the Intellectuals in Modern scholars, knowledge is not entirely external to the object, but the subject and object blending the product, due to the scholarly study not simply to acquire knowledge and academic truth, but out of self-cultivation, regulating the family, ruling the state level the needs of the world of scholarship and cultivating one situation, making the knowledge of scholars stress the Broadcom-based, "Road" "" In their minds, although the high and low points, but there are internal consistency, such as between the metaphysical law of "life science", they are often able to coordinate, not conflict, or at least does not occur conflict, but to the end of the Qing era of knowledge economy., with the advent of modern intellectuals, such a situation has fundamentally changed.
Knowledge transformation is based on the changes of the Academic Division for the characterization of knowledge, the modern Western knowledge system gradually replaced inherent knowledge system of modern Western knowledge systems are generally formed in the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, it has two fundamental characteristics: First, derived from ancient Greece to the acquisition of knowledge and truth and objective grasp, rather than cultivate the virtue of knowledge, truth and Slim linked, the second is to define all things scientific, the name of science categories, earlier in Western knowledge systems in the presence of astrology and the like is thus marked "superstition" tab, expelled from the academic door. As far as China is concerned, the knowledge system to accept this kind of features just late for more than a century., triggered by reading knowledge structure and value changes to the system, nothing is close to the Western one hand, with the generation of social change in the identity of the scholar and modern intellectuals, the scholarly study had become the professional behavior, knowledge has become an objective that is no longer closely linked with virtue, the other , the classification of learning to replace the Broadcom learn, making the reader's knowledge structure of a fundamental change, "Walter" to "experts" and "expert" scientific thinking, of course, such a change is not easy, and the end of the Qing process of two generations of scholars, but "life learning", the deepening of the changes in the occurrence and extent of changes is increasingly unfavorable.
The late Qing Dynasty scholar keen Western, largely out of the need for national salvation, is the result of thinking rationally, but the traditional great power of their own living environment and educational background, the direct impact of other factors, making them the emotional life practice or more recognition of the past, in the late Qing Dynasty scholar's attitude towards "life learning" can be seen very clearly. tendency of Western intellectuals when it comes to rational thinking and explanation of the "fate", has begun to think outside the stereotype of reference to Western ideas and thoughts openly express their own ideas, but at the level of everyday life, or when the behavior of divination, fortune-teller, physical "life science" powerful charm still in this regard Yan Fu is typical. widely dissemination of modern Western thinking big advocate for the nation, the fate of the country feel the pulse of "natural selection, survival of the fittest", the daily lives of the Yan Fu quite a lot of divination fortune-teller move, such as the Xuantong three years, to the days of the evolution of chemical Diary (1911), when there is such a record: "accounted for the wealth, great Yin Wood fiscal Yao Wang, space is not empty. Shiyao dark moving, had Officer of Health, Yin Yao grams of this wealth to force Gua off must consequences of the date of Jiayin real space (Note: the last sentence when the Department after the meeting to mind), accounting for promotion. the official Yao duty and into the unitary Every month break, Pat Month, "in Chen Bingshen accounted brother pox disease has been Threatened, was not economic reform. applicant has an aggregate longevity Hai water is built for the month grams, born of the, e, and held the World Shen Yao solitary gas was powerful, the father of Yao was born, brother Xu Yao month break, this disease is also a living after shi medical, the Jihai more (Note: The last sentence when the Department of Missing afterwards) "Mao Jiayin accounted for feng shui, hardship section Gua, the Liuhe, Liuhe the Kyrgyzstan accounted for, they have the sun and the moon to foster the held World Wangcai, of looking back, students should Yao, raw itself. can be described as happy men "," accounting brother is on the good and bad, was trapped becomes constant, gold. afternoon ghost very busy moving, of brothers and Yao, and retreat of God, in addition to no students help the fierce will carry. was Born in Japan, Chen fear of lost also. after Shin years, was considered by capital punishment (Note: The last sentence when the Department after the meeting to mind), accounting for the date value is derived from the marriage of brothers held the World hexagram consists of six red becomes Liuhe. parent Yao launched the World Health should be jealous God, the same move with Ugi, of grams a living, when the main from the composite "," accounting for travel may Mingyi smaller over water World Pro official action of the students back Pro descendants, moving grams of the World, is appropriate to make the trip. the sub date shall as soon as punch afternoon, and then make the trip ⑩ taken the trouble to cite the words of Yan Fu diary divination release, to illustrate the divination is the norm in Yan Fu life. its Busuan the content is very broad, including fortune, promotion, disease, life and death, good and bad feng shui, marriage, travel, earthly life of the people most concerned about things many of them should be others seeking on behalf of divination Gua divination nor is the individual's private sexual behavior even in some release after the words Yan Fu also write down the results of the event, to show Bu Gua efficacious. It should be said, Yan Fu generation of scholars, connected to the daily life and divination fortune-teller, is not what a strange thing.
Knowledge transformation happened to them, but they are, after all, the transition generation, their education from an early age are is a traditional Chinese education, Broadcom foundation scholarship cultivating one's education, and later accepted outside of their Western, but their rational choice, and not fundamental impact on their attitude towards life. the daily emotional aspects of life, they still like the ancient scholars as the metaphysical and a physical "life learning" inclusive. fact, in the face of "science" Western and Chinese physical "life science" is difficult to reconcile, Western thinking rational advocate and divination fortune-teller life behavior between huge gap, if a person is internalized in Western rationalism body and mind, not just use it as external to the own knowledge and ideas, then he is difficult to agree with everyday life in divination fortune-teller behavior only in Yan Fu generation cognitive, Western has not reached such level, nor the formation of "science" identity social environment, so they did not consciously to realize that their behavior the inherent contradiction.
After entering the Republic of China, especially during the New Culture Movement, "science" identity social environment basically formed, emerging intellectuals towards the attitude of "life learning" have been greatly different from their predecessors have been made judgments all, the New Culture Movement erected the banner of "science", its meaning is not only scientific knowledge, methods, spirit, refers to one set of values, a universal doctrine system, a normative evaluation scale, the so-called "scientism" or "only scientism." "'scientism' word ...... its significance can be understood as a kind of faith, the belief that only in the modern sense of science and described by modern scientists the scientific method is to get the kind of the only means that can be applied to any real knowledge "(11) In the shadow of this belief, even during the New Culture Movement happen that, contrary to the scientific, rational all traditional culture and behavior are superstitious, Confucian ethics, religion, monarchy, folk beliefs and customs, etc. "(12). Chen had clearly pointed out:" If you believe in science invented the compass of truth contrary like that and science spirits, soul, alchemy, amulets, fortune-telling, divination, to Planchette, Feng Shui, yin and yang, just sheer fallacy Nonsense, absolutely believe. "(13) so the atmosphere and environment of the times, the natural" life science " especially narrow "life science" extremely unfavorable, that the Republic of China engaged in "life science" who also tried to move closer to the "science" or "philosophy" Yuan Shushan << life before the spectrum >> << sequence >> statement: "scientific terms, my country ancient not the translation from by Zhuanzhan shift. solution Zheyue: 'Where is the so-called scientific researchers,' What, then my country expertise, What a while non-scientific yeah? Runzhou Mr. Yuan Shushan to the Series << life spectrum >> see shows I said: 'it is also science .......' Mr. divination astrology >> << described, through the deduction, the essence of science, are plain to see World of suspected Confidential, the humble "(14)." astrology philosophy specialist school for my country ....... I humbly that book (referring to the << commands spectrum >>) fruit to spread around the area buildings, the manpower to make it a series, a long time will improve the MAK eliminate Change of World, with the board in human evolution Sheng Yun, and then see the philosophy, the validity experience also. "(15) Yuan of life "analogy as" science "or" philosophy "is clearly the trend of the times the product of orthodox fight for status reasons, there is a" life learning "to compete in the modern discipline system and subject classification, this kind of thinking is precisely that" life science " the situation at the very edge of being the declination had to resort to the "scientific" discourse and strive to place.
Spite of these efforts, but the "life science" is still the mainstream intelligentsia of the Republic of exclusion, especially narrow physical life is always difficult to humble an illustration is illustrative. Mentioned Yuan Shushan << Divination astrology >> preface, one claims to believe in Historical Materialism Lin Geng white, once described: "A few years ago I divination astrology, felt a bit of fun, leisure time, frequented study , but also because of a whim, wrote a << >> discriminator, it is the rage the moment my friend, there are many disagree, they said: 'You believe that one of the materialist conception of history, why advocate these not a contradiction in it? 'and later saw the >> << Tattler Weekly Qian Xuantong actually called me bastard "(16). forest friends and Qian Xuantong attitude, just representative of the more common view of the intelligentsia After all, in the wake of the knowledge transformation and May 4 baptism, forming groups of modern Chinese intellectuals in the knowledge structure and value system closer to the West, the National People's Congress in academia are "experts" with scientific thinking, uphold Western rationalism, scientific concepts so that they can not tolerate the minds of non-"science" "life science" there is, of course, also be considered "conservative" intellectuals "life learning" in everyday life still offering space, such as Wu Mi, a famous scholar in his diary is not when divination record here only a few: July 28, 1937, the sleep still Bu << Yi >> accounted for tomorrow's good and bad "(17), 1939 3 25, recently absentminded, worry father died in Xi'an. tonight especially Hesitation interference restless. been prepared to turn a blind eye open book, finger a page a method of divination "(18), July 6, 1946, << Jianjia House poem >> Prayer Bu Mi this year at Tsinghua suppression may cloud 'the Yifang godson grace and nephew'. seed index Shu Mi thought to Wu, the nephew refers Keqiang life sentence like Mi back to Tsinghua meaning "(19). Judging from these records, Wu Mi divination, which is characterized by, first, that non-normal life, often in a certain moment of the changing times and life divination as July 1937 28 January divination, after the "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" the Japanese invaders coming into Peking critical moment Boji fierce Bu worry about the parent in 1939, but also the Yin Xian after the Japanese attack, military necessity, therefore, 1946 divination, is facing a critical choice, given behavior Bu own divination, strong privacy from the diary, basically no Wu Mi divination records for others, and Yan Fu, a large number of others divination, in stark control In any case, the prevalence of "scientism" environment, Wu Mi "Scientism" quite critical, but it can not take into account the overall social environment not publicly engaged the mainstream intellectuals are defined as "superstition" divination activities, in fact, the actual separation of the generation of intellectuals in Wu Mi China where rational Western thought advocating and personal emotional life, compared with the end of the Qing Yan Fu's generation is more obvious and inherent conflicts greater, variety of tangible and intangible factors, some life practice can only be more and more personal, private to the fact that, had the Chinese-style "life science" can not fail to decline. In short, the overall pattern of the modern knowledge economy.
, Regardless of the purpose of knowledge classification, or the study of human social identity and the changing attitude of the traditional "life science" is quite unfavorable. "Learning" life science " "or" Road ", separating in modern different disciplines, mainly emphasis on a philosophical level, but due to inconsistent with the mainstream of western philosophy, it is difficult to dominate, increasingly marginalized," "life science" surgery " or "", the fate of the poor, defeated in the face of increasingly powerful trend of scientism, reduced to one of the "traditional" part of the culture "traditional", the road to decline. "life science" this process, it is worth today reflection very much, this is a general description of the framework, a series of related issues is still poorly studied.
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(4) Learning Bibliography: the rise >> << Intellectuals and the edge intellectuals, set out << powerful transfer: Modern Chinese ideological, social and academic >> Hubei People's Publishing House, 1999 edition, page 193.
(5) << Qi Lue >> << Series slightly >> "Zhu Shu always << Qi Lue >> Classified real-sixth of the law, and upcoming books divided into six category.
(6) << Analects of Confucius described >> contains: "Confucius said: Chi in the Road, with virtue, abide by benevolence, swim in the arts." Confucius "Road" and "art" (or say ") has compete to distinguish the concept, obviously have far-reaching impact on its knowledge system of the Qin and Han dynasties, is only one example. << Qi Lue >>
The ⑦ Ji Yun: the << Sikuquanshuzongmu · subparts Syria >> contained >> << Sikuquanshuzongmu, Zhonghua Book Company, 1965, 769.
The ⑧ left Yuhe: << learned from the four seven families of the school - >> Academic Division and the creation of the modern knowledge systems, Shanghai Bookstore Publishing House, 2004 edition, page 194. ⑩ << Yan Fu Diaries, set out << Yan Fu >> Volume 5, page 1506-1510.
(11) J Wei Mosi: the nature and origin >> << scientism of modern Chinese thought, Guo Ying Yi << of scientism (1900-1950) >> Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 1989 edition, cited, page 16.
(12) Ideality: << "superstition" concept in the occurrence of early modern studies >> << Peking University graduate Xue Zhi 2008 4.
(13) Chen Duxiu: << >> China's political problems, Chen Duxiu Selected articles, upload << >> (on), life reading Joint Publishing Company, 1984, page 170.
(14) Wang Qing Mu: << sequence >> contained Yuan Shushan << commands spectrum >> Beijing Yanshan Press, 2010 edition, page 3. (15) Dong primary Kui: << sequence >> contained Yuan Shushan << commands spectrum >> 2. (16)林庚白:<<序>>,载袁树珊<<述卜筮星相学>>,北京燕山出版社2010年版,第38页. (17)吴学昭整理注释:<<吴宓日记>>第六册,生活·读书·新知三联书店1998年版,第180页. (18)吴学昭整理注释:<<吴宓日记>>第七册,生活·读书·新知三联书店1998年版,第10页.
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