On the history of the world and world peace: of Chen Hengzhe world view of history Preliminary

, Chen Hengzhe (1890 to 1976) is a batch Geng students taught at Peking University, and after returning, is China's first female professor. >> << Western history published in the 1920s, she was the China thesis Union http:/ the earliest one of the world history textbook / country years ended in 1949, this textbook row reprinted nine times .1943 Chen Hengzhe, Hongyan Village, Zhou Enlai invited to visit the seat of the Southern Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Zhou Enlai said to her: "Chen your students, President, I heard your class, read the book you write. "of Chen Hengzhe writings influence is evident in recent years, Chen Hengzhe >> << Western history continue to be concerned about, century Liaoning Education Press republished << Western history >> Oriental Press the 21st century, Chinese workers Press, Yuelu bookstore have also reprinted the book publishing density similar historical works are rare, visible representative of a certain book as the world history textbook. domestic academic research on of Chen Hengzhe its writings are very limited. far as I know, only He Chenggang Zhang Anli "a 'with creative ambition' history textbooks the - Chen Hengzhe, writings (Western history) textbooks Features Commentary "and Huang Lei" the CHAN Hengzhe, Historical Achievement Dynasty "papers, this article attempts to << Western History >> focus, Chen Hengzhe the history of the world The concept of doing a preliminary investigation, and as a window to explore the world of Chinese intellectuals in the early 20th century view of history.

View of history the Chen Hengzhe world there is an important basis in reality, it is against the war, and advocated the construction of a peaceful world. Basis of this idea is the era of her life and their life experiences. The Chen Hengzhe study in the United States at a time when World War I, she was living in was the safest, most prosperous United States, away from the war, but she was concerned about the war. August 1916, at the 12th annual meeting of the Eastern United States Student Union, Chen Hengzhe participated Chinese speech contest, and finished second, her speech entitled "Peace and battle" visible, then Chen Hengzhe, have begun to war to reflect. Returned to China in 1920, the domestic turmoil made her suffer a lot. Said: "the book of life, and the next volume, are gunshots as << Western History List >> on the sixth edition of the preamble gun shadow come - the former as in the civil war in Sichuan, the latter for Yu Qi Lu war Nanjing. "(former Sixth Edition << sequence >> reason, she said, because in writing << Western history >> on the books at the time, she had accompanied her husband to Sichuan, Sichuan poverty, backwardness and occlusion of her very shocked .1922, she published << Sichuan Why bad to this point? >> in enumerating Sichuan drawbacks , and this chaos due to the warlord: "The first important reason is political - equal to the military, because Sichuan addition to the military, there is no other political affairs.", Chen Heng Tetsuo Women's Federation, United Daily News, learning, friends of the business community in Chongqing, initiated the establishment of a "troops to save money Promotion Association" as she said in the letter to Hu Shi: "I do (a) compilation of Western history outline. (b) for the youth of Sichuan manufacturing point against the warlords psychological (speech, article or between rhetoric social). "So, the world view of history of Chen Hengzhe, with an obvious imprint of the times and like many of his contemporaries, and her longing for peace, peace hopes to use The way to stop the armed conflict.

To this end, the Chen Hengzhe << Western History >> illustrates three methods to curb war. First, get rid of the narrow concept and dark psychological. After summarizing the history, Chen Hengzhe the greed and hatred lead to war. Example, when it comes to the nomads of ancient times, the invasion of the farming nation CHAN Hengzhe, wrote: "The nomadic people came with their cattle, actively look for water everywhere seek grass and inevitably that indigenous people always want to infringe Tabayashi. they saw indigenous life Lok, inevitably there is strife, envy the idea ... what Teutons Kou Rome, A assassination Arabs North committed to Europe, but both people's war nothing. "when it comes to the causes of the Peloponnesian War, she stressed Sparta anti Athens prosperity" hate and jealousy "Athenians Sparta psychological The CHAN Hengzhe, believes that as long as abandoned these narrow ideas and dark psychological war can be avoided. to expose shady servicemen politicians. Chen Hengzhe war mainly by the impact of personal behavior. she from anyway, two aspects of this description. negative example is to promote the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War richly provocative Ames official documents ", she thinks that" lead to a case of this war is the best performance servicemen politicians to fool the people evil. " Positive examples at the the entire << Western History >> referenced at the end of the biography >> << Queen Victoria: "The civil war in the United States has begun, and the United Kingdom due to a dispute with the northern states were seemingly should pull into whirlpool of war, so Road cable Jazz will be a very serious documents are sent to the Queen (Victoria). the Prince (Al White Special) feel, If you do not change the tone of this official document, the war will not be free in December at seven o'clock in the morning, he was out of bed trembled and the handwritten comments, documents tone can be changed to ease the solution to this problem, and can therefore get a road of peace. "Since these soldiers politicians can around war, then let the people know the soldiers insider politicians can prevent the outbreak of war. << Western History >> As she pointed out: "My editor << Western History >> There are two motives. First, because the results of reading history in recent years, deep realized that the war is an anti-cultural thing but at the same time, I have believed that the war was an avoidable avoided more than one end, and then expose Wu Renzheng off shady debunk shady they fool the people, is one of the important methods. "Third, to achieve the peace of the fundamental methods to cultivate internationalism internationalist defeating imperialism. the Chen Hengzhe elaborate international and imperialism and their relationship: "The purpose of internationalism, in seeking mutual understanding of the human world communist and national culture, he's an important tool, a permanent peace in the world. imperialist purposes, appropriate and internationalism opposite , increase human misunderstanding and implacable in his task, his important tool of war. these two modern cultural forces of competition, competition that is tantamount to war and peace. internationalism can defeat imperialism Well, the dream of peace can be realized. "This shows that Chen Hengzhe to internationalism as the ultimate solution to achieve peace in the world.

The pursuit of peace in the world, so Chen Hengzhe the history of the world focus on cultural aspects. << Western History >> Looking Chen Hengzhe's opposing force, emphasizing the cultural exchanges between the main tone of the book such a world view of history includes the following three main aspects.

(A) culture is an important part of world history and culture of the rise and fall of countries historical changes

Chen Hengzhe << Western History >> introduction, clearly stated: "When the culture as a history of bone marrow." Therefore, the contents of the culture << Western History >> occupies a particularly prominent place, such as when he spoke of Greece The length of the achievements of Greek culture and about the length of the Greek historian roughly. << Western History >> Renaissance system The analysis showed Chen Hengzhe, very value of this cultural phenomenon, called the "modern Western culture origins. She has also written a booklet << A Short History of the European Renaissance >> readme writing: "because my spring codified in the << Western history >> Renaissance Chapter, who feel the pain of not intended to do everywhere. I have tried literally, to seek to reduce his length, but the results still got a long chapter to thirteen thousand words, I say Renaissance desired, still failed to do their tithes. '

In terms of space, this chapter << Renaissance >> << Western History >> is not prominent, but the cultural taste of the most concentrated chapter is clearly the author's favorite part., If the sixth edition chapter Table of Contents conducted a large-scale adjustment, the fifth edition of "Egypt, Mesopotamia and its west", "Greece" and "Rome", in the first paper Union http:// Sixth Edition into a Egypt's ancient culture, ancient culture of West Asia, the ancient Greek culture and Roman culture. "Chen Hengzhe the cultural emphasis can be seen evident.

Chen Hengzhe cultural rise and fall is countries historical changes of important performance, the rise and fall of a nation or a country's, and the power of culture is far greater than the power of the use of force which Chen Hengzhe the relationship between the use of force and cultural discourse been a manifestation of First The Chen Hengzhe elaborated by force of cultural destruction. << Western History >> From Ancient History, she summed up the a "Egyptian mode": Egyptian culture entered a golden age of the pyramids period, can be described as "outside invasion Kou, is no contention chaos" Kingdom huge development in the construction business, but later Hai Kesa (now translated Hyksos) "to occupy Egypt. later came these Hebrews, they helped Hai Kesa Egypt to collect taxes tube Egyptian civil. these two peoples one, goes as far as good a Egypt, forced to a warlike nation ... the Egyptians actually rely on the use of force, driven out of the alien. conquest alien's idea but unfortunately on this move. "military expansion eventually led to the decline of Egypt. simply said, "Egyptian model" to follow such a trajectory: cultural prosperity - alien invasion - invasion of the nation to become the warrior - toward aggression and expansion - cultural decline. addition to this pattern applies to Egypt You can also apply to the West Asia Assyrians and modern Japanese. addition, when it comes to ancient Roman culture, Chen Hengzhe with almost all Roman history demonstrate a point: destroy the republic and put an end to the Empire is Rome's own martial arts , and the effect that martial arts are followed, Chen Hengzhe admit that force is sometimes also play an active role in, but this is only "occasional" indeed undesirable, she said: "The use of force is the important elements of the empire. So Empire established a counter-culture thing, but his results can often get some unexpected progress we need to understand the driving force and unexpected results - also known as "by-products" - entirely accidental. history a lot of progress, many cultural undertakings is the root of all evil driving force behind the unexpected results. imperialism is one case of unexpected results are always unexpected, always unreliable. "Third, although the use of force can destroy the culture, but not enough to defeat the culture and cultural elements can also be preserved cultural forces much larger than the force is based on this understanding, she pointed out: "The victory of force in perpetuity at the moment, the culture of victory." This is her << Western history >> elucidations of one of the central argument.

(B) the scientific development and cultural exchange is an important driving force of the development of history, is also pushing the world toward a culture of "one country" an important factor
<< Western History >> Chen Hengzhe from a historical perspective, the ideal of a peaceful world: "The elements of a national personality, but a common past and common future. Specifically, it is a common history, and a common belief ... future humans all over the world, such as to create a common history, such as the occurrence of a common faith, then, the world will be nothing less than to become a country ... modern times due to the developed nations personality excessive production chaos, like the feudal system, as more great forces to wipe out not worth our dream a hope? "Chen Hengzhe is to infer the history of the world to regional history, presented the World countries in the cultural "one country", and to eliminate the chaos, the ideal world "Datong" hope that through this pathway. World culture to the "one country" is possible? Chen Hengzhe that such a possibility is there, because there is an important factor of the "scientific" She discusses the role of science, said: "modern science, direct already become all learned based on all the tools of progress and human well-being, indirectly rely on the forces of the industrial revolution, the industrial, commercial as well as political, social, all cause the driving force behind he is indeed the center of modern culture not only that, he can religion do not ask, do not ask the national language, do not ask, do not ask natural or geographical limitations, but know the truth given the world human, so science is a valuable international forces. "This shows that in Chen Hengzhe seems "Science" has inter-religious, inter-ethnic characteristics of cross-language and cross-country, is to seek happiness for all mankind tools, both generally acceptable to States, but also the "driving force" of social development. "Science" of these features, making it an important force in promoting the culture of the world "one country".

In addition to the "science", Chen Hengzhe that cultural interaction is an important means for the world, "one country," as well as world peace. << Western History >> cultural exchange is important throughout the book in book the concluding part of the first series of Hengzhe pointed out, cultural exchanges to promote the development of the ancient history of this view penetrate into many of the chapters in the book how to promote cultural integration and world peace and cultural exchange? of Chen Hengzhe in << Western history >> this has not specifically addressed, in particular, is rarely involved in cultural exchanges between China and the West. However, in another article, she gives the answer: "This old combination of virtue and modern Western civilization is not random mixing not only mutual accommodate harmonious blend between the factors but an original echo each other. "so Chen Hengzhe, and cultural exchanges should not be a simple physical changes, but should be culture to reach a harmonious blend of the chemical changes, chemical changes and create a more state-of-the-art common culture, this common culture can become the basis of the "one country".

(C) in the course of world history, political and social development of the road can have a variety of options

Although Chen Hengzhe proposed global culture of "one country," the ideal, but in the summary of the historical changes of the European and Asian countries, Asian country's political and social development of the road, she were thinking. "Western history last >> chapter, she pointed out that the development of Asian countries, three roads: "the people of Asia, but only three roads to go one, is to follow suit powers of Wubei the self-help, and the second, for having refused to follow suit and become the slave of foreign powers are Third, by his own genius, and the other to create a new road. representatives of the first class, it is Japan, the second of the representatives of India, and the hesitation between these two Crossroads, which can not be another own out of a new road, our overview is a summary of historical experience, is also thinking of the status quo in Asia countries have different national conditions, they can choose different coping styles in the face of Western hegemony and road of development for China, Japan and India as the representative of the road does not work, because the two "Crossroads", China should "by his own genius," to create a new road. Unfortunately , lives in by Chen Hengzhe the era, she saw that the Chinese "not another own out of a new road, but is in" Wandering she hopes to embark on a new path, and they make their own destiny . She believes that to create their own destiny is very important, which is reflected in her a fable prose << Canal and the Yangtze River >> article analog Grand Canal (on behalf of creation) and the Yangtze River (on behalf of self-creation) dialogue, she borrowed the mouth of the Yangtze River to say: "You do not know the meaning of life, your life, as also by people, destroyed by the people, my life is no destroyed." This shows that she that the roads in Japan and India are the powers to impose foreign forces succumb to such a fate "ruined by the people." China has only come out of their way to really control their own destiny, to become masters of their own. , in the Western history >> << of Chen Hengzhe described the history of the world is Western based, but her thinking was the fate of China and China's development road.

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Chen Hengzhe world history was formed in the 1920s was the World History discipline is still in its infancy, and she >> << Western history and its world history for the teaching of the history of the world, research and disciplinary development have important .

First, introduction of CHAN Hengzhe, the advanced history teaching methods in the United States. Guidance CHAN Hengzhe, two very capable professor during attending Vassar University: History Department Lucy Salmon (lucy

And European history professor Eloise Aile Lei (eloise Ellery) she had elective Lucy Salmon newsprint historical value "courses, examinations, teacher students to the library to be issued per person a note that read: "from the following newspapers, compile the history of that era and place small to very innovative." This thesis Union http:// examination form, highlighting the basic skills of looking for historical data and the use of historical data. Chen Hengzhe benefit her to appreciate the importance of inspiration to guide the process of teaching and teacher-student interaction, which had a profound impact on her future academic research and teaching work. the returning coach Peking University, she will be the introduction of this method the teaching of world history, to encourage students to find their own historical data but at the time, even at Peking University, available material is not a lot. As Chen Hengzhe said: "(ed) The second motivation >> << Western history, I three years ago, professor at Peking University << Western History >> I was most opposed to the education of the people of the injection. historians, this method is particularly unhelpful harmful so I have special attention to the students for hidden material, as auxiliary or to prove the use of my speech, but the results of this effort, but I feel the lack of Chinese reference books I therefore decided to step down as faculty, specifically for textbook. "So, << Western history > itself but practice the the foreign historical pedagogy product. abandon this approach injection Education injected into the hands of the fresh air, but also Chen Hengzhe, cultural exchanges and learn from, dull world history teaching.

In secondly, Chen Hengzhe world history research provides a new way of thinking and direction. In the 1920s, the history of the world in China is an emerging discipline. At that time, the history of the world should study what the concept of how to conduct research, are being explored. Chen Hengzhe in << Western History >> answer two questions.

The first question is the scope of the study. Of Chen Hengzhe written history of Europe, but Europe is not a "geography of Europe", but "the culture of Europe, so the exception of Europe, the book also involves the West Asia and North Africa. Accordance with of the plan, the book should also include the "Europeanization" of the Americas, but because of limited space, this book does not contain parts of the Americas. << Western History >> scope is not limited to, many of the book The expositions are involved in Asia, the Asian countries mentioned above three development road is a case in point. Talked about the new imperialism, she especially wrote Chinese words, the Chen Hengzhe world view of history is, including China, and China is one of the integral part of her world history reflects species overall history of ideas. This idea is of emphasis, For example, when it comes to the purpose of the study of history, Chen Hengzhe wrote: "not so and so we have to study the emperor's genealogy, nor the Wu Renzheng off the line above, but why we humans from a biped eat raw meat, becomes a representative of the people of modern civilization ... the scope of our study, only Western countries is limited, but no matter which part of the history of mankind, have ordinary and special nature ... the ordinary nature of the common humanity so we studied a part of human history, not only can understand that part of humanity, and you can understand their part. "This shows, Chen Hengzhe the whole history of the concept embodied in the following two two aspects: First, she thinks that the history of the world should study all human beings, rather than people of a particular area, and although she wrote the history of Europe, but she hopes to get a universal law across ethnic and national boundaries, this rule applies to the entire world, and China, of course, also included. Unfortunately, in the future development of the history of the world, China is gradually excluded, so the history of the world into the history of the world have to say a shortcoming in the study of the history of the world.

The second question is to study the concept. The Chen Hengzhe stressed that culture and cultural exchanges in the history of the world, her understanding of the culture is a generalized culture, it is not only political, is not just economic or religious, but political, economic, religious well Fanbai the sum of human activities. "the study of the history of the world of culture and cultural exchanges as the main line, this concept not only at the time of world history scholars research ideas, even for today's world history studies have important reference Because half of the rise in the 20th century the macro world history say global history is very concerned about the overall history and cross-cultural communication, there are many similarities between the theory and methods and of Chen Hengzhe the world history.

Again, the << Chen Hengzhe Western history "breakthrough to a certain extent" Eurocentric "thinking about the history of the world from the point of view of the oppressed countries, which was commendable." Western History "class writings tend to Europe perspective on the development of world history, but the Chen Hengzhe >> << Western history is not the case, the book was criticized by many in the European Development of European colonial aggression to other parts of the world particularly unhappy when he spoke of the new empire doctrine, Chen Heng Zheti to the Chinese, she wrote: "the biggest target of the new imperialism, that is, the bulk of the raw materials, investment opportunities, and the the consumption surplus produced the mall, we will become their best target product original of the raw material is most abundant investment opportunities, the most majority of the people not only complex Shu, and it is the most consumed 'foreign goods', not powers capitalist utopia? "Obviously, she was standing Chinese perspective, imperialism, rather than narrative on the position of the European colonial expansion. another example, when it comes to the future development, she believes that countries should "own country for the contribution to the culture, considered to be the standard of the national honor they will be able to Cangbing ruined A is the first step of the developed countries personality. Jew of noble solitary clean with disabilities to wealth and fortune with his own personality as the success or failure of life standards "not to wealth and fortune proud of "noble solitary Jie of Guests" is a typical Chinese literati image visible Chen Hengzhe China's ethical guidelines be able to become a future world benchmark one, this appeal once again embodies the her Chinese culture based adhere to. addition, Chen Heng-zhe pointed out that the Asian Development three roads, of which Japan is the representative of the westernized, but this is exactly what she no therefore, Chen Hengzhe clearly the do not agree with "total Westernization", her history of the world does not fall into the "Eurocentric" trap.

Chen Hengzhe world history has many merits, but also inevitable limitations, this limitation is mainly manifested in her elite consciousness. Of Chen Hengzhe origin and upbringing is the main cause of this elite consciousness. She was born in a courtiers family after another by a good education, therefore she is elite Yi Yuan., as Feng Jin aptly pointed out that the: "Chen Hengzhe apparently think yourself able to competently serve as a foreign reader exchange, told outside world a real cultural spokesperson her own experience as a representative universality practices what she tried to establish their own eligibility to foreign readers a critical step. Chen's, however this is actually caused one she can not solve the paradox, that is, she is not a great era in the ordinary Chinese people. "Chen Hengzhe that the intellectual elite can play the historic task of Chinese and Western communication. practice, however, these high-ranking elites both can not represent the whole of China, and do not understand China society's deep-seated contradictions have to say that one of the inadequacies the Chen Hengzhe world history.

Awareness of the Chen Hengzhe elite is mainly reflected in two aspects. On the one hand, Chen Hengzhe elites to take on a cultural exchange mission is the hero of the history in the 1935 article, Chen Hengzhe the female genius women and ordinary woman two types She believes the former to get out of the family to contribute to society, ordinary woman to be a wife, mother this logic, by extension, the general society is divided into two classes of "elite" and "non-elite". Chen Hengzhe how to understand the "elite"? >> of << autobiography, she wrote: "Our family is not in the economic big rich house, but in the past in China's money and not taken seriously, especially scholars often pride themselves in their needy . "she later wrote:" I belong to the literati class ... this class has their own ego and prejudices ...... literati class total learning achievements and personal qualities more than anything else heavy Rightly or wrong worth mentioning are used as criteria to judge people. "This shows that, of the hearts of the" elite "is not a value in the Western political elite, the economic elite", but "cultural elite" Chen Hengzhe clearly belongs

A "cultural elite". End << autobiography, she was particularly China sent students to the United States to pursue advanced studies with the First World War the same breath, and highlights the role of the female students: "Interestingly, when the whole world will have to change this huge military conflict, the whole national life in China will also be sending girls stayed in the United States for the first time because the government changed dramatically and past government assigned to the Western countries, many young men and envoys, these young girls are not sent to the Western countries to establish the relationship of the political or military aspects. they were assigned to learn the culture of the Western countries future many beautiful friendship. cultural emphasis on culture, and ultimately in people's minds - rather than in the political field planting war is an invisible but powerful coalition-building to sow the seed. "CHAN Hengzhe, believe that cultural exchange is an important way of the international peace, her meaning is also studying loneliness. simply said, elite concept of Chen Hengzhe, with an emphasis on cultural exchange is inextricably linked, because in her opinion, only the elite can take on a cultural exchange important task.

On the other hand, although sympathetic to the general public, but Chen Hengzhe does not think that the people are the masters of history, do not think that they are promoting the power of the historical development. Therefore, she can not possibly be the masses of the people - especially the lower classes - depending history of the founder, or to save the country in danger. it << been fully reflected in the French Revolution >> chapter: "On the day of July 14, a group of Paris the mob, portable stick with ax to attack the castle. they kill the soldiers see the prison ... Since then, the French Revolution mob politics began. "the French the big thesis Alliance http:// revolution as a" mob politics "is not <the Western History >>'s pioneered, but this major event like the storming of the Bastille, described as such vigorous rare. she called a "mob" of the people of Paris, "rogue" and "homeless" people still text highlights greed, "People's Constitution% tax can not see from this, the bread can get something for nothing." when it comes to the role of the French people in the revolutionary movement, wrote: "the poor peasants and workers, subordinates are always Ta Kwu gong is a revolutionary medium of social ... important ownership of that movement, the civilians but doing their pawn, to drum up support for them to help cheer Wind Bale. "
In summary, while there are inadequacies the Chen Hengzhe world history, but the development of the World History in China has an important inspiration from a research perspective, CHAN Hengzhe, emphasized the significance of culture and cultural exchanges, which is the study of the history of the world an important idea. from teaching practical level, the teaching methods she introduced so far have reference value for the history of philosophy from the governance, her Western history also include China, Chen Hengzhe, on the one hand from the Chinese point of view of understanding the world, and the other one hand again the history of the world inspired by China's development path, which are a source of inspiration for today's China World History Studies.

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