On the Ming Dynasty the prime minister system the abolition of

Abstract: China's prime minister auxiliary system originated in the Xia, Shang, termination of the Ming Dynasty. Highest feudal rulers of both the powers and also to enjoy the pleasure of the emperor is a necessary basis for the prime minister system; deal with national policy, there has to Colonial auspices of institutions, the Colonial institutions can not be that no one, that is relative to grade can not be abolished, but compared with the right to be restricted. However, from the Yuan Dynasty emperor to make themselves and their descendants can never arrogate all powers and thus abolished followed one thousand years of the prime minister system. The reasons for the repeal of the evolution of the prime minister system, prime minister of the characteristics of the system and the Ming Dynasty prime minister system is briefly described.

Keywords:: prime minister system, the evolution of the abolition of the reasons

China's prime minister system originated in the Shang Dynasty, in the history of the prime minister of China's political system is just a generic term, the specific name of the prime minister, toward the most "prime minister", "Qiu", "Stuart", "common phenomenon", "Book of Order Zhongshu Ling "," Shi Zhong "," Book of the left and Pushe "and so on. the ages, in addition to the Liao Dynasty, not to the prime minister as an official Guan Ming only as a generic term for outside, the other dynastic name due to sometimes different, the prime minister's main responsibility is assisting the emperor and the decision of the General Staff of state affairs, so "Baiguan said. deal with national policy, no Colonial institutions, Colonial institutions is not no one presided over, which means that phase post can not be abolished, but the options, restricted options, cut, Shixiang rights can not grasp the hands of a two-person, but also so that they both will be restricted and subject to supervision. prime minister institution Services Colonial system is the response to this, and continuous improvement.

One, the prime minister the evolution of the system

The prime minister of the name begins with Qin ". [1] The Qin Dynasty prime minister system, the prime minister is head of the central administrative system. Qin Ying Zheng set up the prime minister, the royal doctor, Qiu Excellencies, as prime minister post.

Modeled on the system of the Qin Dynasty, Liu Bang establish the Western Han Dynasty, the highest authority of the orders of the prime minister the government, of Qiu government and royal doctor Temple. To the Han dynasty, in order to prevent the de facto ruler of the dictatorship will be the Chief Excellencies the government moved into the inner court, to assist the emperor ruled that the state affairs by the chancery, the chancery became the emperor's confidential Secretariat. "Emperor, Qiu not often home, to when Emperor from the prime minister position, power is gradually reduced, often by the emperor Book of the Department of the inner court custody instruments personally ruling Shu governance, sometimes more to eunuch 'Zhongshu Ling' title (Huanzhe the human and also make them privy to the Chief ". [2] starting from the Emperor Zhao emperor years when the young can not deal with national policy, each minister of state, wife's family, plus the 'Sima', 'general' or other title to lead chancery things to EMPEROR, the heads of the Book of the Department of the Book of Order Scholars (in the past is a eunuch. The Department has become the 'Taiwan' instead of "[3], the prime minister of the Eastern Han Dynasty have on the public, Excellencies on the public for the Tutor and the ruling generals, Excellencies divided into Qiu, Stuart, Sagong.

Three Kingdoms, Jin Dynasty, Northern and Southern Dynasties. This period both public officer province officials, and the public at this time, the early years of the official multi-province official until late provincial official multi-public official less shows that this is a public official of the provincial officials during the transition, but also both the prime minister of mutual cross-set period. [4] the three countries with three governor II prime minister, only Shu's Book of Order, Jin, Northern and Southern three governor II for the prime minister who, in addition to the Book of Order, there are still books Supervisor Zhongshu Ling, Shi Zhong, and Book of Pu She provincial officer for the prime minister who not only increase the public official relative reduction in the prime minister who has evolved to the Sui and Tang dynasties, the best to save officer for the prime minister, public official and then exit the stage of history .

During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the establishment of a new system of central government as the core of six provinces, which the chancery, in the book, sects of three provinces in the system, and marks the progress and further development of China's prime minister system. Three provinces in terms of boundaries of division is not obvious, because "Sui Dynasty set Excellencies, official high in addition to its Bingguo were those words but within the history of satisfied, the Book of Order all system, not pre-machine thing, also known as the affairs of this land". [5] Specifically, the , the three provinces also participate in the operation, but the core of power in the three provinces in the chancery of the prime minister of the Tang Dynasty system is followed the development of evolved on the basis of the Sui Dynasty of the old system it is closely related to Zheng Shitang system is a prime minister collective decision-making is an important political system of procedure. Since the Zhenguan after, in the book Scheeren five Chinese sentenced to things, "[6]" terms of reference of the Central Secretariat is gradually re Zhongshu Ling in the set of the Edict, and more in advance Zheng Shitang talk "[7] So Zhengshi Tang rising status , became prime minister resolved to the military affairs of the Supreme State Conference.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the countries prime minister system basically followed the Tang system, the most obvious change is rising rapidly, the central highest military leading organ of the Privy Council, the status of the sects have equal shares and in the book, participate in state policies. After Liang Jianli, the Privy Council changed Chong Executive Yuan, Chong Zheng history help eunuchs served but by the emperor cronies minister as to the Later Jin, Later Zhou Dynasty period, the reset of the Privy Council, the senator management confidential, although inferior to the prime minister, but the right to dump inside and outside.

Central agencies and set up official in the Song Dynasty are mostly followed the Tang system, but the bodies was, and to differ materially from the Tang Dynasty system. The implementation of the Song Dynasty Central Government System in the book and the Privy Council on the palm Wen Wu Dazheng "the prime minister position of Zhao Wen Hall University, said photogenic, minor national history again and chief the Jixian temple scholar. "[9]" the beginning of the founding prime minister Kim's set no fixed number, Song Mai, Taizong to reduce a person, quite to the two-phase two parameters for the rate. "[10] which is usually two prime minister Renzong to years two Shenzhizhengshi Wen Hikohiro, Liu Hang, FU Bi three of the prime minister, the only way Kan parameters known the conduct of public affairs. "Taizong end of the Lu-side independence phase, Lu Shu, Wang base Li, Li Hang four Shenzhizhengshi these cases is relatively rare. [11] Shenzong Yuanfeng five years, the reform of the Bureaucracy, the Book of Vice - Book of the Order for the prime minister about Pu She Huizong governance, CAI to Taishi Consul General of three provinces, to change the chancery about Pu She Osamu, less slaughter, slaughter of the book assistant minister by the the Osamu chief sects assistant minister, less [ 12]. Northern Song Qinzong Jingkang yuan at the end of another complex chancery about Pu She prime minister. [13]
Roads eight "Southern Song Xiao Zhong Chao according to the law system, instead of the prime minister about the chancery about Pu She is the prime minister and restored in the name of Shenzhizhengshi [14] From then on, until the Southern Song Dynasty perish, the prime minister's name never change.

Western Xia and Liao established by the minority, but also absorb the Tang and Song's advanced culture system, set up the prime minister. Western Xia imitation of the Third Division of the Second House system, and Liaoning implementation of the north Officer, south of the official two-track system.

Gold, one-provincial system, the prime minister set the terms of the level of division is more complicated. The four Specifically points: about the prime minister, Pingzhang the conduct of public affairs, about Cheng, Shenzhizhengshi. Pingzhang and Shenzhizhengshi actually have left, the right of the points, the Yuan Dynasty Pingzhang than two, then headed by the first, second, third, etc. difference. Jin left statue, and the Yuan Dynasty Mongolian customs is still right, so right at the top left. "I saw the peace chapter collectively known as the prime minister". [15]
Ming Taizu Hongwu Jianyuan ago, will be the prime minister set up thirteen years left phase Huwei Yong autocratic plotters Fuzhu, Suiba Central Secretariat, the Central Secretariat official to make leather, decentralization in six, while the Emperor completes the process. The prime minister system was abolished.

Second, the abolition of the Ming Dynasty prime minister reasons

(A long-standing scepter contradictions and options,

Prime minister in a centralized system of China's feudal society to play a dual role, both as assisting the emperor, to help the Emperor to deal with the government, decision-making confidential, may be because of too much power threat to monarchical form of monarchical power and the right to conflict. scepter and the right two are interdependent and mutual restraint. the emperor is the head of state, prime minister, heads of government, no prime minister of national management, the emperor is likely the country can not be maintained; if the emperor is the prime minister does not trust or do not reuse. The prime minister, it is difficult to ranking high. However, the scepter and will still be divided unclear boundaries, monarchical power and the right to contradictions in the development of 2000 years of history has always existed, and have experienced gains.

The prime minister is "Baiguan long, their power and status to other bureaucrats can not be compared relative to the right is most likely threat to the scepter, the scepter is also time to prevent the right phase.

1, relative to the right to wield, infringe upon the main Weaver, even life-threatening.
Undeniable Jun dispute is an unavoidable since the prime minister system since the ancient Chinese bureaucratic contradictions in history when the time is ripe, it will continue to emerge wield, Weaver infringe upon the main right we known Cao Cao, he called the prime minister, in fact Xiandi at his feet, but a frog trampled to death at any time. he can sword palace, the Queen found hiding in the Jiaqiang Chezhu hair kill the emperor only to fight the shaking, and did not dare say. Emperor Ming drove to the chancery door, the Book of the Chen Jiao dare Jun phase separation of powers refused the emperor outside the gate. description of the power of Chen Jiao large, as large as he did not looked down on the Emperor Ming.

2, the right to openly challenge the supremacy of the monarchical power, jealous cause monarch.
The greater the power of the prime minister of the emperor would be inevitable deliberately suppressed, weakened relative to the right even to kill the prime minister, by repealing the prime minister system, in order to respect the scepter. Han is well-known historical figure, he was killed, of course, has its "Tusigoupeng "inevitability, but he is too arrogant, and sometimes even disregard etiquette between the monarch and his subjects and other shortcomings, the end of his fate from the catalyst and speed up the role of feudal monarchy was prime minister of their threat is too, would be undermined relative to the right, so will inevitably lead to the prime minister system was eventually abolished.

3, high power main shock, monarchical also time to prevent the right phase.
Li Shan Long is the founding of the first hero, after the founding of New China, the emperor appointed him as prime minister, the emperor is the concept of a native heavy, Lee Seon long as his fellow, and just work behind the scenes over the years, never stunts, only know that buried work such as this one emperor, of course, is very reassuring. In contrast, Liu Ji also set for the emperor to conquer the world a great service with indelible contribution, even if the emperor that he is not credit, elbow grease is always Yes, but he has only been called the sincerity of Peter. Even more incredible is that his salary many Earl minimum annual pension of only 240 stone, Shan-long 4000 stone Quito, more than ten times than that of Liu because Liu Ji, an exotic, more importantly, the Liu-based judgment on the matter than the emperor but also accurate from the Battle of Longwan to rescue Anfeng, the emperor thought, he could think of, the emperor did not think he can think of for the emperor, he would not allow such a person in the side, and these decisions are not Anmin a policy but a policy of trickery used to intrigue coup is very useful for the emperor not to kill him has been very good One can imagine that the emperor at all times to prevent a threat to his throne.

(B prime minister system for denying the imperial power is highly concentrated

Throughout the ancient Chinese autocratic centralization strengthen the process is always accompanied by two fundamental contradictions, which is a contradiction of monarchical power and the right to the prime minister too much power direct threat to imperial power, to prevent the imperial power is highly concentrated. This from the Qin prime minister monarchy system is the organizational form of state power, and is characterized by a supreme emperor, under the same time there is a "Chang Cheng emperor, assistant machine" the prime minister. prime minister Abolition of the lifting of a major threat to imperial power, the imperial power to get unprecedented enhancements. waste phase is just Zhu Yuanzhang step of solid imperial pawn, the emperor in his reign of for future generations a system to eliminate a variety of risks to the imperial emperor provisions, after the sons of emperor, but also Xu Licheng phase, the subjects dare to have petitioned for civil and military ministers immediate Hezou the lingering death, the prisoner, the family were killed. [16] Baxiang the emperor all power rests in the hands of the central government, government department, hospital, temple, sub-management general affairs, no unification genus do not have to worry about to lose its power, the emperor is in fact part-time prime minister, imperial power and the right combined, from the set monarchical system, persuaded a guarantee autocratic arbitrariness of the emperor, the imperial power is highly concentrated.

The decline of the feudal society, with the absolute monarchy and centralized system of increasingly decadent emperor order to guarantee the exercise of the supreme power, not subject to any aspect of the deceived and prevent, simply repeal the prime minister, the implementation of non-phase system, which the imperial power and phase the right to dispute ends.

(Three emperor abolished the prime minister's resolve and the will

1, the close proximity of the Yuan Dynasty, de facto ruler of political chaos, and a firm determination to solve the monarch the dispute.
Close proximity of the Yuan Dynasty, de facto ruler of political chaos, and to find Yuan death of the learned, no doubt his firm determination to solve the monarch the dispute. The Yuan Dynasty, the prime minister's powers, such as $ Renzong Tiemudieer three times into the dominated the political affairs of the Yuan Dynasty, many emperors were crowned by the prime minister, according to historical records, such as Hidemune death, the iron loss of some minister of the deliberations of a separate new monarch to ascend the throne, but also the Tie-wood children, he is Thai Dinh. In July 1328, Thai Dinh have died in the prime minister down to the assassination of the sand to power the back and forth did not immediately Thai Dinh, son of owner on the throne, for a few months by his handling of state affairs, and very chic, but the "National not day no monarch, pour the assassination sand chic people talking up and down the court, the general feeling of insecurity, and ultimately lead to great changes. When he learned that most of the Incident, pour the assassination of sand this hasty owned the Litai Dinh Son of eight-speed guitar for the Emperor, reign title "Tianshun" This is the day Shundi. This is the major event of the Ming Dynasty, so on the first Ming the lessons of history is very deep. "$ demise of reasons, the emperor also summarizes the important one is appointed de facto ruler of the upper and lower blinded. [17] triumphantly ended boiling, Morrow drastic, fundamental approach is to eliminate the powerful minister to be the institutional basis.

2, the reality of the political situation, and the emperor's character, ability and powerful monarch will of him taking this bold initiative to provide the conditions.

Zhu Yuanzhang was born poor, completely relying on their own ingenuity, personal struggle wherever they went, before the pacification of the world, and cook the emperor, at the bottom of my heart faint mischief inferiority complex, low and noble contrast, often nerve allergy by the Emperor of poor peasant origin, fear others looked down upon him, afraid of those who surrender over the subjects of the generals refused to accept his, afraid of the Civil war with his comrades on his infidelity, afraid of those who have knowledge of the Confucian persons who refused to use him this inferiority complex, always accompanied him, he was almost all the time to fight back. "is the emperor is a lust for power, strong, right to the higher, the more firmly in power. Minister very suspicion, he would not allow people to meddle in imperial power, the intensification of this background and complexity of the psychological conflict between he and the prime minister, hero. "[18] Hu Weiyong will certainly be there as the prime minister of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang between the contradictions. "Hu Weiyong the power in 1376 and 1377 began to grow his close ally and has been referred to a senior position, and began expelling him less likely to support his people. This prompted the Zhejiang Censor Korea should be in the Imperial face attack of Hu Weiyong its two allies, he denounced the Huwei Yong and other people are not loyal to the emperor, and overstepped the emperor power "[19] Later, the emperor spotted Huwei Yong infidelity, also heard that the Hu Weiyong there to seize power conspiracy and to make strong reaction from the emperor to Jiandang case, to kill the prime minister Hu Weiyong before and after the implicated to the deceased, where two million people. At the same time, the emperor carried out a major restructuring of China's political system in our country at least fifteen hundred years or more System of Prime Minister formally abolished. Share Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
However, shortly after the emperor, the abolition of the prime minister system, then because of his own lack of energy, set Diange scholar to help him deal with the Chief Chengzu reign, set up a cabinet to help him deal with the Chief, the Cabinet is no prime minister so much power, but also quite a disguised form of the prime minister system.

Qing Dynasty, modeled on the system of the Ming dynasty, the establishment of the Cabinet, dealing with administrative affairs to 内阁大学士 assist the emperor, 内阁大学士 Manchu high officials as also the composition of the government by the Manchu nobility Wangda Chen meeting, both to deal with national policy because of government Wangda Chen meeting too much power to the Yongzheng Wangda Chen meeting, they removed the government and set up a military aircraft at the military ministers responsible for the execution of tasks, become the de facto prime minister, but nominally still clinging to the former, to grant 内阁大学士worship phase and the Cabinet has been suppressed, can only deal with a public official, although the emperor abolished prime minister system due to various reasons, but the prime minister, the evolution of the system is also affected by objective factors, constraints, the objective social environment changes often require prime minister, the system changes the society is always changing and development of dynasties will have some new situations and new problems, in order to adapt to the changing situation, the supreme ruler had to adjust the prime minister system. emperor abolished prime minister system, power unprecedented concentration of all government government must emperor to personally deal with, is difficult to achieve reasonableness of several generations follow the inalienable political system, the prime minister system has its own existence. next Chengzu period of the Cabinet, the establishment of the Grand Council to assist the emperor deal with the conduct of public affairs. Although the prime minister system was abolished in the Qing Dynasty, Yongzheng, and this is actually a disguised form of the prime minister system, the emperor from the fundamental abolition of the prime minister system.

References:

[1] Yang Hong, Ouyang Xin Chinese Constitutional History, Wuhan University Press, 2005.
[2] Luo reflect the history of ancient Chinese political system, Sichuan University Press, 1988.

[3] [America] Mote, [England] Cuirui De Cambridge Chinese Ming Dynasty History ,1368-1644 on the volume, China Social Sciences Publishing House

[4] Yangxian Min Zhu Yuanzhang life layout ninety-nine plus a breakthrough, Enterprise Management Press, 2006.
[5] Zouyuan the beginning of the Chinese prime minister, the Chinese Press, 2007.
[6] Song Xu Ziming essays Rui school to fill: Song Saisuke Code recorded in the school complement, Zhonghua Book Company 1986.
[7] Wu Zongguo. Bureaucratic political system of ancient China, Beijing University Press, 2004.

[8] Niu Dai peaks editor, Liu Fang, Jiang Ming Kwong edited Teleology of military strategy, Kunlun Press, 2003.
[9] Yang Guangbin Institutional Change and National Governance - political development, People's Publishing House, 2006.
[10] Wei Qingyuan Bai Hua Chinese Bureaucracy history, Oriental Publishing Center of China Publishing Group, 2001.
[11] Lee Kong pregnant. Ancient Chinese system of administration History, Fudan University Press, 2002.

Notes:
[1] Tongdian, volume nineteen prime minister 2004.
[2] [3] [4] Yang Hong, Ouyang Xin Chinese Constitutional History, Wuhan University Press 2005:78,87.
[5] Yong Rong. Chronicles Official Post Table, Volume III, the Cabinet, 1965.

[6] Comprehensive Mirror says: "Story: Where the military affair, Zhongshu Ling Scheeren armed seen, miscellaneous Department that the streaky sentenced thing."
[7] See the Mirror Volume ninety-three Tang Ji Zhen Guan, 2006.
[8] [13] Song Xu Ziming essays Rui come to the school to fill. The Song Saisuke chronological recorded a school to make up the first volume of the Zhonghua Book Company, Volume I Volume II, Volume 13, 1986:875.

[9] [11] [12] Luo reflect the history of ancient Chinese political system, Sichuan University Press, 1988: 129, 130.
[10] Yung-vegetarian three items, the prime minister's political participation the number of members in 2008.
[14] [clear] Wan Si tong Song Dachen chronology, Twenty-five Histories Supplement, Zhonghua Book Company, the sixth book, 1955:7790.
[15] Wu Zongguo bureaucratic political system of ancient China, Peking University Press ,2004:315-316.
[16] [17] [18] Yang Xianmin Zhu Yuanzhang life layout ninety-nine plus a breakthrough 2006:142,160,143.
[19] [U.S.] Mote, [English] Cuirui De Cambridge Chinese Ming Dynasty History 1368-1644 volume, China Social Sciences Press, 2007:135. Abstract: China's prime, minister-assisted system originated in the Xia,, Shang and ends at the Ming Dynasty. Supreme ruler of the feudal power but also to enjoy both hand to do the emperor's pleasure is the prime minister system is a necessary basis; handling state affairs, can not be without colonial institutions, colonial institutions can not be no host , meaning that staff can not be abolished with But with the right to be limited. However, from the Yuan Dynasty's emperor in order to make themselves and their future generations will never be all powerful, a thousand years which followed the abolition of the prime minister system. In this paper, the evolution of the system the prime minister, prime minister and the characteristics of the system was abolished system of the Ming Dynasty prime minister causes a brief elaboration.

Keywords:: Prime Minister system, evolution, the abolition of the reason Share Free paper Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

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