Analysis: The core of marketing from the positioning to place

Research papers Download News: the core theory of modern marketing has been changing, people's awareness of brand management has gone through different stages

1950s, marketing emphasis on 'selling point', speaking through advertising my product was good, what distinguishes the product at.

1960s, began to focus on brand marketing, from a focus on the product itself turned to give the brand emotion, customer brand is the emotional move, the brand to be successful. Marlboro is the beginning of women smoked cigarettes, after a crisis, by the Leo Burnett brand story and the western United States cowboy image combining, successfully created a consumer desire wild uninhibited male image.

1970s, positioning theory stage of history. Background positioning theory is to bring the United States to produce the rapid development of abundance, many segments toothbrush, beer, cars and other products where there are many brands, a sharp increase in the consumer receives the information. In this context, two books on positioning theory have repeatedly stressed that the consumer's mind is actually very simple, they are trouble, in order to pass information to them, verbose no use, only simple.

Core positioning theory is how to manage consumer awareness. Originally published in 1981, 'positioning' that consumers have a level head of small steps, the product will be made to distinguish between high and low. Enterprises need to do is to seize the first layer. Here is a simple example, you can tell a history of the moon who, how many people know the second who is it? But if there is a moon of the first female astronaut, attention will significantly improve. The first can not find how to do? You can grab the second position by the associated brand. The book emphasizes the consumer mind, only the first and second.

1990s, positioning theory with new development, no longer simply talk to find a first, a second question, but began looking for a more differentiated product itself something that is also more in-depth consumer awareness management.

Do not go to educate consumers

Consumers have a natural head of the ladder, we do not try to educate the consumer, who wants to educate consumers that with the money any grudges.

Politics, war, business, the pursuit of the opposite sex, you can talk about positioning. In China, positioning theory is actually the most used throughout the government. In recent years, the domestic advertising companies get a lot of city advertising the list, they are trying to reposition their city, packaging, such as 'China's largest vegetable production base', 'to not want to leave the city,' and so on. Commonly known as 'rich handsome', is actually a means of positioning to attract the opposite sex.

Positioning theory is a huge contribution. First, it clearly can consumer perceptions about the brand management. Many brands are trying to manage consumer awareness, but only if you own should be a key success factor, that is, their products, brand and unique corporate culture. Li Ning's share price recently fell badly, wherein cognitive failure management is a very important reason. Li Ning is successful athletes, is the pride of the country, but also made a national brand, he said he was 'China's new generation of hope', we all like, management is very successful. What happened then? Li Ning began to be internationalized, to become Adidas, Nike, trying to make consumers think that it is an international brand, Li Ning, but does not have the key success factors of Nike, not the capital, targeting failed.

Second, positioning theory also talked about a very important thing, is that consumers have a natural head of the ladder, extending about is that we do not try to educate the consumer, who wants to educate consumers that with the money any grudges. Of course, there are many on the market, the product is not to cater to consumers, such as Google, Facebook and so on. Some would say that Google can educate consumers use search, why I can not teach them to use my product? Two different concepts, Google is a revolutionary new product, it is a lifestyle change, not in educating consumers. Revolutionary product and brand positioning are two completely different things and should not be confused.

Third, there is a huge contribution to positioning theory, it presents 'a good name to the product is where it starts.' A enable consumers to associate the product features, benefits name can save a lot of things. For example, the home improvement industry in the submarine floor drain brand is very successful, although the process is not complicated, but it is easy for consumers to think of submarine high-tech, high function, now it has a floor drain brand. Another example is Zhou Hongyi's 'security guards', 'QQ bodyguards', 'comprehensive search' are the product features and benefits to consumers placed in its name. A name does not need to spend more money, the key is awareness.

In addition, positioning theory suggests that the consumer's mind is by ear operation, management should pay attention to consumer perception of auditory applications. In the brand communication process, the sound than the plane, the visual things is much more important, making product advertising films, 20% to 30% of the money will be invested in the sound inside. The famous melody products such as Intel, Motorola 'hellomoto' has been so popular. According to positioning theory, to consumer brand memory in my mind to go, it is better to give the image of text to text better to give voice to the melody. Many enterprises have no sense of their own voice without star celebrity endorsements product, dubbed the effect will be greatly reduced, companies actually suffered a major loss.

Just 'fear of angry' is not enough

Simple positioning allows consumers remember your brand, for example, is the fear of angry Wong Lo Kat, but it is difficult for consumers to generate brand emotion.

Positioning theory is not perfect it? After reading two books, I feel the positioning is just a start, in essence, is to explore how to brand management. Personally I think that should be the 'place' evolved from 'positioning', that is, from the management of consumer awareness, the development of comprehensive management of the feelings of consumers.

Please think about it, Apple has positioned it? In fact, you even Apple's slogan do not know, but this does not prevent you love it, because Apple products give you a very good experience.

Today, the brand is not a name, not a trademark, not a product, but a consumer product or service the whole experience. Especially for the end-consumer market, many of the product itself is actually no difference, just different brands. The most typical is mineral water, take away the label do if a blind test, drink a few different brands, but never to the dozens of pieces ranging from two dollars or even hundreds of blocks their prices. With the brand, you can harvest higher brand premium; with the brand, can better withstand competition; with the brand, they can conduct large-scale replication.

Simple positioning there is a big flaw, because although this so that consumers remember your brand, for example, is the fear of angry Wong Lo Kat, but it is difficult for consumers to generate brand emotion. JDB Today's advertising is 'the national sales leader red cans herbal tea', although the well-known slogan, but we do not love them, with JDB Wong Lo Kat fight, and did not come out for the many consumers JDB speak. Brand management is the highest level of consumer love you. If I told you Garfield kill a lot of people can not say for sure. I tell you really kill, scene evidence, you might also say that it is certainly hurry. Because you love it. Garfield your brand as attractive?

In my opinion, positioning theory can also do some complements. First, the traditional positioning theory does not tell you how to find the point positioning. After reading the book business may still not know how it should first find their own position, is an important consumer insight behind the work. Second, according to positioning theory, consumers head inside to find the ladder, the enterprise through a huge advertising budget will go up product into the desired position, the book spent tens of millions of dollars to position themselves examples abound, this it is not suitable for SMEs. Third, like a good positioning strategy after the implementation of creative and promotion is also very important, positioning theory on this point are not involved. Fourth, the traditional positioning theory was born and flourish network era, the media are newspapers, television, radio, outdoor advertising. Then there is a one-way push advertising actually deceptive in which the emergence of the Internet era of social networks communicate with each other so that consumers can fully experience the product and brand. And free propagation characteristics of the Internet make a cheaper media, advertising and return to the starting point of the most essential: the user experience and brand is the real king.

There is no perfect theory, but the contribution in the field of marketing positioning theory can never be ignored

The basic method of positioning is not to create something new and different things, but to change people's minds what already exists, to those already existing link together to reconnect.

We spread over this society, people are the only barrier is a simplistic mind. Face the front of a lot of information, people's general strategy is to tighten the entry of information readily available to accept less and less.

People entering the brain shortcut is to be first. History has shown that long-term market share of the first brand to enter people's minds occupied second brand is usually twice, three, third brand. Moreover, the ratio will not change easily. (Source: Network compile ideas: free download)

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