Abstract: Innovation is the soul of a nation's development, but also the essential factors of the survival and development of enterprises.
Research through research on enterprise innovation management in the new economic era, through the analysis of enterprise innovation management tools, including the Carnot model, smiling curve, and quality function deployment, explore innovative management model. Meanwhile, Apple Case, combing their historical evolution, summarizes the characteristics of the various stages of development, and its products include mac, iphone, ipad, ipod and Apple retail stores, App store and other analysis, profiling innovation is unique of its management, including its product innovation, technical innovation and sales channel innovation. innovation management models learn from Apple's digital lifestyle hub centered seize high-margin products design and sales process both ends of the model, the successful transformation of China's manufacturing enterprises, the creation of core competitive value, building an innovative learning organization has a certain inspiration. Keywords: innovation management, enterprise innovation, technological innovation, Apple, and channel innovation.
With the continuous development of science and technology, global competition is increasing, enterprises can not succeed in the market place, and must require it to have a long-term and accurate strategic and strong core competitiveness, to create exciting products, look for clear blue ocean, and constantly update and consolidate the company's market share.
In 2010, Apple launched the ipad and iphone4, and in 2011 launched a to iphone4S product once released, to get a "fruit powder" of vigorously sought after, its selling the degree is evident. According to information issued by Apple official website, in 2011, 10 The first day of pre-sale, on 10 January, iphone4S exceeded one million in the first weekend of October 17, 2011 reached 4,000,000, iphone4S beyond iphone4 best phone.
The popularity of Apple products from its style of fashion as well as technology advanced, for its competitors, the gully and barriers insurmountable the full competitive products reflects the foresight of Apple, its innovative management mode as well as new product development philosophy, achieved high sales and high profits for the strong support and protection. Enterprise innovation management tools overview.
Innovation is the source of the survival and development of enterprises For enterprises, it is necessary to continuously develop new products or improve existing products. Products business operations, product development, enterprise innovation management, you can use the following management tools: Kano model (Kano Model.
Kano model was proposed in 1979 by the Tokyo University Professor Kano Noriaki product design model based on consumer satisfaction categories according to the degree of consumer satisfaction, product design attributes into excitatory demand expectations type needs and basic needs of three categories.
The excitatory demand for the majority of customers can not be foreseen, but once developed, will make consumers extremely satisfied, which is the pursuit of state enterprise, Apple products that meet the the excitatory needs of consumers, the desired type of demand means better performance, if the product is to achieve high customer satisfaction will bring, on the contrary, it will reduce the customer satisfaction, the basic demand is the threshold of the products to enter the market if the new product does not meet this class needs will be considered incomplete. Smile curve (Smiling Curve.
Smile curve in 1992 by the the Acer company's founder Stan Shih, he thinks a chain like a smile curve, namely research and development and sales of high-value-added in the both ends of the smile curve, low value-added in the smile curve the middle of that production., enterprises want to get more profits, must work to shift the focus to R & D or sales, and partial outsourcing manufacturing to lower-cost countries and regions.
Manufacturing in R & D and sales in the end, they are subject to contain costs and prices, not only without any bargaining power and more brought great pressure to the country or the region, such as high consumption of resources, environmental destruction and suppress workers' labor. Quality Function Deployment (Quality Function Deployment.
Quality Function Deployment originated in Japan in the 1960s, is well-known customer-oriented approach to product development, which are widely used in manufacturing and service industries, the purpose is the pursuit of high customer satisfaction. Among them, the House of Quality (House ofQuality quality function to carry out the core, it is a balanced tool to determine customer needs and product or service performance. Second, Apple's innovative case studies. The life of Steve Jobs (Steve Paul Jobs is legendary life, he not only founded Apple (Apple, Inc.
, more save Apple, Apple's products are well known, he changed the whole IT world, created the computer revolution.
Apple can be said that a decade's fastest-growing, most innovative company of the most eye-catching, many Apple products have been recognized by consumers, such as iphone, ipda, ipod, these products are novel appearance and ease of operation to win market share.
This part of the test by the in-depth analysis of Apple's product innovation, technical innovation, and channel innovation, Exploration exciting innovation management mode. A digital life hub --- Product Innovation occupy the leading position.
In 2001, Steve Jobs (Steve Paul Jobs presented Apple's "digital lifestyle hub" concept in developed countries, and even some developing countries, there are already a lot of people are accustomed to using a mobile phone, MP3, digital camera and a video recorder, Steve Jobs (Steve Paul Jobs is targeting such a class of people that the Big Apple machine can be developed into a control and the integrated digital lifestyle hub "Steve Jobs (Steve Paul Jobs, Apple's products seen as both the control software, but also to control the combination of hardware, this strategic vision, the PC industry is second to none. (1 original trendsetting, compatible with increased advantages. Apple's products are based on innovation known for innovation is the soul of a nation, is a source of profit for an enterprise.
Almost become a symbol of the direction of the industry in the electronics industry, Apple products, Apple's new product is not and more, every year, only 2 to 3 of these products, however, has become the object imitated by other electronics manufacturers, on behalf of the industry's most advanced level. In the early days, the storage space of a traditional MP3 player is very small and can only accommodate one-hour song.
First ipod, however, changed the limits, which can store up to more than 1,000 songs, state-of-the-art ipod for Apple The company has earned a lot of profit. latest ipod, itouch4 almost have all iphone functions, for a time, occupied a large share of the electronics market, including MP4, MP3, and even occupation of the game console market share, the other electronics manufacturers competing to imitate. Ipad listed in 2010, instantly attracted people's attention.
Ipad is a product positioning between the laptop and the smart phone is the first Apple product that can run in their own brand on the chip A4. A4 is the need low power consumption and high processing speed of the new generation of mobile devices specifically designed A4 enabled iPad can work continuously for 10 hours. continuous work of long time, very high requirements for the machine, which also meet business people as well as games The fans demand, is the ipad yet another key to success.
Whether it is a product of Apple which, once listed, there will be a rush of imitators Apple as a pioneer of the new products, naturally occupy higher profits, enjoying the innovation as a "first", Apple brought results, and their innovative ideas, leading the trend of the times.
Innovative at the same time, Apple also draw the lessons of the previous cooperation with other companies, enhanced compatibility and versatility of the product, so that it no longer seemed so lonely. First, Apple started using Intel CPU.
2007 years, Apple's Big Apple machines are replaced by the Intel chip, and thus, the Big Apple is not only operate on windows operating system, but also the use of windows application software, application software, Apple company attaches great importance to cooperation and Microsoft.
People can use their familiar office software in the Big Apple on, no longer have to worry about the problem of software difficult to learn to third, Apple ipod, iphone only need to install the iTunes software, you can connect with ordinary computers, purchased from the Internet or Free genuine software to the end of 2006, the iTunes Music Store download business once occupied by the legal music download market in North America 82%. "iPod + iTunes for digital music downloads has become more simple. Apple's real innovation is not limited to the hardware.
Outside but that hardware accessory products, for example, users can download a variety of software to meet their needs, as long as the user wants to find the appropriate software, can be put in the hands of Apple products change as a game console, a music player or even a laptop wireless Internet the ipad an ad on Description: "Today, we can watch the newspapers, listen to magazines, and movie nest together, as well as on the phone meeting, we can change the classroom to anywhere, and even the stars can also be at your fingertips, With ipad today. "
In accessories, Apple also consider very comprehensive and unified appearance of Apple products, have a different chassis, colorful design, making the original Apple products become personalized and lively, each The consumer has the right to design their own Apple products, design and gradually turned into a kind of enjoyment.
These innovations, it is Apple's most humane place, it set an industry pioneer in the image, at the same time to open the gap between the brand, so that all functions are able to service for Apple products, but also makes consumers more able to accept The new Apple products. (2 high prices lead the high-end market, the PFP price broaden the mass market.
Loyal "fruit powder" were high prices and not block their love of Apple products and the purchase, they care more about the Apple product innovation and fashion, but for the average person, the high prices are prohibitive .
Consumer acceptance of high prices from its brand loyalty For enterprises, the high price means high profits based on the first quarter results of 2012, Apple announced the quarter (2011 October - January 2012 between doubling profits year-on-year to $ 13.1 billion, equivalent to earnings per share of $ 13.87, and revenue rose 73% to $ 46.3 billion at the same time, Apple's third quarter 2011 net profit were 59.9 billion, $ 7.31 billion and $ 6.623 billion, its high profit staggering. Apple company has become a veritable "expensive Apple.
" However, with the development of science and technology, constantly updated, and elimination of the market, Apple is bound is not possible to have a long period of high profits.
With the continual emergence of similar products, consumers can use a similar product gradually instead of Apple products, Google (Google developed Android system has been installed including HTC, Samsung and other major mobile phone, its operation is simple, the price PFP is not a small challenge for iphone for ipad, ipod, there are many alternative products on the market, these products are to compete on price, the difference in functionality, and Apple is not fundamentally, which makes Apple The company must reconsider the negative impact of high prices and high profits.
Therefore, Apple in 2011 are starting to change their high-priced strategy, start to seek a breakthrough on the part of the product, to create the People First price, in order to widen the mass consumer market. Apple TV, for example, which is the main Apple to enter the digital home appliance market However, contrary to the expectations of the public, this apple TV gross profit of only $ 62, accounts for only 20.7% of the price of this and the high-end price before Apple is completely inconsistent.
Another example comes from the United States to sell the iphone 4s, the best 2-year contract for $ 199 Motorola Droid Bionic, and its competitive product available to Verizon Wireless, the 2-year contract price of $ 300, T-Mobile offered Galaxy S II and HTC Amaze 4G to $ 230. precisely because of this pricing strategy makes the iphone 4s in the first week after the listing sold 4 million units, so that ordinary consumers can easily have. In the eyes of most consumers, Apple is still representative of the high-end and high prices.
But now, Apple is the gradual transformation strategy, high prices tend not to have a high market share and a scientific and technological progress era, no matter what kind of product, after the baptism of the market can quickly find similar alternatives, even if the design and functionality does not like Apple products, but savvy consumers can always find the most suitable products and the right price, in this way, these products may not Apple products.
As San Francisco VC investors preconceptions and the practice prides itself on a broader range of cultural disciplines informing the studio output (Stewart Alsop evaluation of Apple products, "they are not cheap, but is no longer considered a high-priced products." Indeed, Apple products have gradually began to focus on the mass market, into the lives of ordinary consumers , its price and quality, more and more people to accept. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
2. grasp the design and sales links --- technological innovation and channel innovation.
Apple's strategy and the value of the smiling curve has the same meaning as the one hand, Apple has developed a variety of novelty products, so that consumers dizzying the other hand, Apple's broad sales channels, the full-featured products to send to every corner of the world. profits lower processing, Apple is outsourcing to China and other developing countries with lower labor prices in order to make a profit. (1 smiling the curve front end --- revolutionary design aspects. Steve Jobs returned to Apple, attaches great importance to the cultivation of innovative talents.
Apple outstanding talent to become the core competitiveness, far beyond its competitors in the design of the Apple products.
Bold and innovative in order to motivate employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows Program (the Apple Fellows, Program Apple Fellow is the highest honor granted to those who have made outstanding contributions to Apple employees Apple to electronic scientists at the same time also means high salaries and stock options., "Apple Fellow and have the freedom to do things right, which seems a Harvard University professor, you can do any of the things of interest. addition, Shidi Cardiff Jobs has been Apple's core design team kept in a small number of employees under his direct leadership feel their value as well as the responsibility of Apple, has a very positive role to inspire their creativity.
Apple's design never pursuit of the range of the number of Apple is developing more than 40 products of the project in 1997, had just returned to Apple, Steve Jobs took over as interim CEO of the company, it will be reduced to four, even in today's , Apple's products are not based on the number to win the huge variety of products and can not be stated that this is an innovative enterprise, on the contrary will distract the attention of the enterprise, companies wishing to cover everything, but all things to all loss.
Apple is a design characteristics are reflected in the simplicity of its product design on their products never up and down too much effort in appearance, uniform or white or black cabinet, even let consumers are difficult to detect product replacement brought about changes in appearance, but precisely because of this simple and casual look to become eternal fashion icons of the young people in the eyes, and also allow people to keep in mind in repeated contact Apple products. (2 smile curve end --- interactive marketing link.
Apple products to achieve success in the electronic products on the market, not only because of its unique design, but also because of its interactive sales model, consumers actually receive the miraculous effect of Apple products, the experiential consumption has become Apple one of the most successful strategies.
Apple retail is undoubtedly successful, which makes hundreds of thousands of ordinary consumers to touch Apple products first Apple retail stores opened in the state of Virginia, in the United States, Since then, a growing number of Apple retail stores everywhere in the world, Apple's sales brought great achievements As of 2009, the data show that, Apple has opened more than 280 retail stores in 10 countries around the world, their operating income accounted for 16% of Apple's total revenue.
Apple retail stores to create a wonderful environment for user experience Apple products, soft lighting and beautiful music, no one will bother you here, the customer can be any tinkering with Apple products on the table, and the freedom to enjoy it to life with wonderful convenience. addition, Apple retail stores, as well as unique genius (the Genius Bar, where staff well aware of all of Apple's products, they are responsible for all matters find fault to begin repairs. warm service deepened the satisfaction of the consumers of Apple products give consumers an interactive experience, and more.
If Apple retail stores is an actual, stores selling Apple products, it App store is a specialized service for iphone, ipad, ipod consumer software purchase terminal. Popularity of the App Store is amazing in 2010 years, 40 million applications through the iPhone and iPod touch users worldwide to download, App store offers more than 185,000, about 20 categories of applications, remove developers share applications sales still Apple added $ 1 billion in revenue. Apple revelation of our enterprise innovation management.
Apple product innovation, technological innovation, and channel innovation are quite unique to Apple's successful experience for today's Chinese enterprises, it is a critical moment of transition, learning plays an important role for the healthy development of China's enterprises. A focus on technology and innovation, to grasp the core competitiveness of enterprises.
Apple's focus on product design and sales channels to build, and the outsourcing of manufacturing and other sectors to the relatively cheap price of labor in China and other developing countries, in order to obtain cost advantages. According to incomplete statistics, China has become the apple industry chain in the largest production base of Chinese enterprises has become Apple's enterprise "OEM".
Apple "foundry", not even 2% of the profits of Chinese enterprises are less, Apple took away most of the profits of the industry chain this, many Chinese enterprises, including Foxconn emotionally relevant data Apple now operating margin has exceeded 30%. Foxconn parent company, however, the listed companies in Taiwan Hon Hai's profit margin has been reduced from 5.9% in 2006 to the current level of 2.0%.
Technology innovation to drive the development of enterprises, enterprises of cost, quality, efficiency and product flexibility to provide support, the foundation of corporate growth and development through technology, reduce costs, expand the scale of production, the use of advanced production lines to reduce labor costs through technology, improve quality, and high-performance design and maintain the consistency of the product, through technology, to shorten the time to consumers as soon as possible to get the products, but also new products to market quickly, through technology, increase flexibility, so that products can more in line with the needs of consumers, to meet consumer expectations for the product. These are the need to rely on technical support.
For Apple, it is precisely because of its state-of-the-art technology, leading the development of the industry as a whole, led the company to create a high profit.
Chinese enterprises are in a period of rapid development, the development approach is to use numerous low-skilled and repetitive labor, lack of technological innovation of enterprises will increasingly lose bargaining power, will not be able to create products with core competitiveness.
2. Clutching sales channels, distance communication.
Channel is a source of corporate profits, especially in today's consumer-oriented, grasp the channel is to grasp the market as of today's Chinese enterprises, had not "sell themselves" era, " Hezhe behind closed doors, "go more difficult to create excellent brand is particularly important to build a good corporate image.
In addition, Apple's products in the world are highly anticipated, especially in China, many fruit powder are staying up all night queuing up to buy Apple products on the one hand, Apple clutching sales channels worldwide Apple The shop close contact and communication with customers, benign interaction between the other hand, the advantage of the sales channels and manufacturing consumer "hungry" effect, precisely because buy only want to have, is more treasure, is the so-called "rare" Imagine if Apple products everywhere and can be purchased at any time to meet the fast delivery and on-time delivery time competitive the law, probably would not have Apple products such as today heyday.
Chinese enterprises, especially manufacturing companies can learn from Apple's practice, so that consumers found that the advantages of the product process experience through personalized product and store layout, and timely feedback, product development and innovation management for enterprise get rich The value of first-hand information.
3. Pioneering product innovation, inspire comic tipping point.
For consumers, the demand has a significant level, excellent enterprise to meet consumer demand, and excellent enterprises stimulate consumer demand, Apple is such a superior enterprise, you never know what his next What is the product, or even a new product launches like a festival of electronic products sector is generally worth the wait.
Our enterprise products, most of the following consumer demand rather than lead the demand, which stems from the lack of our own understanding, but also a lack of awareness of product innovation, only vital to the viewpoint of consumers, continue to develop new products, from design to functionality, and even a small part of the change, in order to get success, inspire comic tipping point. In addition, product innovation does not mean scrambling to launch various new products. Apple focus on upgrading the original products, to give consumers a new pursuit to do so for two main reasons.
First, the quality of Apple products and technology are the industry leader, launched its products are is the first product in the industry, said that no competitive pressure in the blue ocean market new products need to re-research and development, and the update on the original product you can use the original technology, a new technology developed even more like standing on the shoulders of giants Apple products know how to continue to develop a new generation of products is a very easy way out of this for product innovation of Chinese enterprises have the same reference.
[References]  Wang Xiao, Hu Jun.
Structure of social capital and SME Innovation --- a management of the world based on the empirical study of the structural equation model [J]., 2005 (07.  West Po Yang Ting double.
Enterprise integration innovation: concepts, methods and processes [J]. China Soft Science, 2003 (06.  Zhang Wei, the new economic era of new areas of innovation management --- complex product innovation management system [J].
Economics and Management, 2001 (16.  CHEN Jin, WANG Fang-rui.
A way to total innovation management: Researchon management of synergistic innovation between technology and market [J]. Siudies in Science of Science, 2005 (s1.  Ni Xiuying, He Jundong.
Promote innovation in marketing channels to expand domestic consumption demand [J]. Jiangsu Theory, 2011 (02 Links to free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com