Abstract: intellectual capital has become a modern organization, the most effective source of wealth creation, those who have the ability to grasp knowledge leaders and organizations will be able to occupy a favorable position in the competition. Determine the level of knowledge of the degree of development and utilization of a business competitive advantage to determine a company's core competitiveness with the development of the knowledge economy, the knowledge of people invested in productive activities increasing intellectual activity created by the rising value of research knowledge development issues will become more and more What is knowledge and knowledge of how to classify, what are the characteristics of individual knowledge, individual knowledge how to develop it? article describes the classification and characteristics of the individual knowledge, on this basis, the analysis of the individual knowledge development and management recommendations.
Keywords: individual knowledge, development management, knowledge activities, knowledge development.
We are moving into a knowledge-production factors, as the core of man's intellectual creation, the intellectual resources possession, distribution, production, distribution, consumption for the knowledge economy era of the most important economic activity in this day and age, knowledge, and ability to increasingly important role played by the organization's survival and development, resources mainly for knowledge and intellectual resources. era of knowledge economy, economic growth increasingly depends on the intelligence products based on knowledge, wisdom knowledge has become the economic development the dominant factor in the first place, all economic activities will focus on access to knowledge and expand resources to play a leading role in this day and age, not funds, equipment, raw materials and other natural resources, tangible assets, nor is the primitive accumulation of capital, and based on human intelligence, knowledge, information-based intangible capital. engaged in knowledge development, dissemination and use of knowledge workers will be the main creators of social wealth, the society's most precious scarce resources.
A classification of the individual knowledge.
Individual knowledge and organizational knowledge, the OECD (1996 annual report is divided into four categories: First, know-what knowledge of individual knowledge, knowledge about the facts, know-why can be divided in accordance with the main body of knowledge has knowledge refers to the knowledge of the natural principles and laws, know-how knowledge refers to the completion of a certain process or the skills and abilities to achieve a certain goal, four-know-who's knowledge, know whose knowledge of which , first, fourth class knowledge belongs to the "explicit knowledge" can be obtained by reading, audio-visual and retrieval. while the second, third knowledge belongs to the "tacit knowledge", mainly against the practice of "learning by doing '
Can be encoded in accordance with the knowledge of the individual knowledge into explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge.
Explicit knowledge (Explicit Knowledge (Polanyi, 1966 after finishing and organizations, can be codified and metrics can be expressed in a formal system of language, text, numbers and graphics coded symbols, description and compilation of knowledge generally can be documented, standardized, systematic knowledge (eg, publications, computer networks, etc., so dominant knowledge directly from the knowledge base to extract and independent learning. wide applicability and can be reused. as well as separation characteristics of explicit knowledge with people, so the use of explicit knowledge, knowledge transfer, learning effect can produce without contact with the creators. dominant form of knowledge of the existence of it, it can be a subjective form exists in the human brain, and can exist in an objective form of books, disks, CD-ROM, as well as other logging tools, such as text, files, databases, manuals, formulas and computer programs, etc. (Nonaka, Takeuchi, 1994, or physical integration forming machine, works of art, such as knowledge, cultural or technical content of the product. explicit knowledge is not the same. For example, the establishment of knowledge based on verbal and logical structure, such as a scientific paper contained an explicit knowledge of music and write music notation is explicit knowledge. shows that explicit knowledge in terms of diffusion speed and learning efficiency are relatively high. course how knowledge through the finishing summarized, classified dominant extent, storage and other means, and can be very convenient repeatedly used, is bound to be the focus of future organizational knowledge management activities. explicit knowledge mainly refers to the form of patents, scientific inventions and special technology , which features can be expressed, the material carrier can be known.
The so-called tacit knowledge, or known as "Tacit Knowledge" (TacitKnowledge empirical knowledge together with the person or organization, it is difficult to encoding and its text or formulaic, often individuals or organizations after long-term accumulation of knowledge have generally refers to the more complex and difficult to express in words, can not be described in words, is not easy to file and standardization, can not be transmitted to others or spread it very difficult to unique knowledge, it is difficult by conventional collected also difficult by conventional tools of information dissemination. example, the highly skilled chefs or artists may reach the world level, it is difficult to own technology or skills to express its spread to others or share with others. hidden characteristics of sexual knowledge and explicit knowledge distinction are shown in Table 1.
In fact, in accordance with the tacit knowledge externalization of tacit knowledge is further divided into implicit knowledge (Implicit and Tacit Knowledge (Tacit (Fred Nickols, 1999. Implicit knowledge is that can be expressed in the form of text, etc. but expressed tacit knowledge, tacit knowledge is the tacit knowledge of those who for some reason can not be expressed at this stage due to an important point of knowledge management, tacit knowledge is better than explicit knowledge can create value, The ability to tap and utilize basic knowledge will be the key to the success of individuals and organizations.
Is recessive and dominant is not absolute dichotomy, most of the knowledge of both recessive and dominant part, only differences of degree. Scholars Beckman (Beckman, 1997 believe that tacit knowledge must pass external and documented into the organization's ability to generate value to the organization. tacit knowledge did not translate into the creation of the best-organized operation and flow capacity of the employees, then the organization will lose its value, and only knowledge can to Information technology to represent, store, share, transfer and effective use, but at the same time, the organization also rely on the transfer of explicit knowledge and the sharing of staff training to enhance their tacit knowledge.
According to the degree of abstraction of the individual knowledge is divided into theoretical and practical knowledge.
Theory of knowledge (Theoretical Knowledge refers to the use of scientific and objective methods of collecting information and evidence, and a conceptual knowledge to be obtained after the induction, analysis and verification. Example, the economics of supply and demand theory, organizational behavior expectations theory and practical knowledge (Practical Knowledge refers to individuals through the actual experience of the work of a particular event, procedural knowledge learned in practical work to incentive theory, and it can be explained by deductive, reasoning to predict and understand the social phenomenon. knowledge of the rules of thumb, lessons and causality. practical knowledge is the low level of abstraction (ie not grouped into a few simple minority concept, detailed and complex, tacit knowledge. example, a person responsible for the introduction of a knowledge management project after many rich personal tacit knowledge of the details of the successful experience and some important key factors. theoretical knowledge interpretation and guidance of practical knowledge, practical knowledge using summarized or verify the formation (or enhance the theory. theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge distinction are shown in Table 2
Or together with the personal characteristics unique to.
Tacit knowledge is difficult empirical. Explicit knowledge behind has gained a solid scientific and empirical basis, the tacit knowledge science behind is still unclear. Lot of formatted knowledge obtained through research or through empirical method to verify the historical experience in the social sciences, comparative analysis and statistical data, provide a basis for the construction of explicit knowledge and prove, however, the research unit as a special enterprise relying on human capital, tacit knowledge is core competitiveness. researchers in the specific scenario-specific experience and tacit knowledge is difficult to reproduce the empirical analysis, it may not have been the abstract to the level of explicit knowledge, but these particular experience and tacit knowledge on the researchers itself and research institutions are very valuable.
Elusive tacit knowledge explicit knowledge has a relatively stable and clear character. Mainly explicit knowledge of stability and clarity usually explicit knowledge on the tightness of the reproducibility of the knowledge and knowledge statements. as long as the same conditions and environment, represent and reflect the fact that by a knowledge of the scene, law and even problems will emerge. complex now that stability, knowledge representation tightness of the independent variable and the dependent variable, the object with conditions strictly distinguished. tacit knowledge of the independent variables and the dependent variable, the contradictory relationship between the many factors, the relationship between the objects and conditions are often unclear, and a lot of research knowledge is still in the implicit sexual or hidden or state.
Tacit knowledge difficult coding explicit knowledge usually has to go through modular or formatted, and therefore can be expressed in formulas, theorems, laws, principles, systems, regulations and instructions, and more tacit knowledge need to be presented with the know-how, personal stunt, habits, beliefs form of explicit knowledge is essentially a person's understanding of the coding, format and structure of its systematic and logical and tight specification language. relative to the significant sexual knowledge, tacit knowledge is still in the non-format and not yet coding has not been formatted and logically state.
Thus, the use of explicit knowledge have a clear understanding of the nature of the knowledge used, due to the specific performance of its stability, clear meaning, and can be repeated to verify, it is easy to store, easy to pass impart, easy understanding easily share tacit knowledge of the use of the connotation of knowledge may be a clear understanding of, or even just know that imitate will produce the same expected results, due to the unstable, elusive, behind the reason is not clear, often performance personal know-how and stunt therefore not easy to store, not easily passed teach, not easy to grasp and share.
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Individual knowledge of the development is let employees Tacit Knowledge and tacit knowledge externalization hidden experience manifested in this process, we must first create an environment and atmosphere, this atmosphere should be conducive to the generation and creation of knowledge. followed by the organization after being elected, internal training, dissemination, diffusion, so that it produces a resonance effect, so that the employees in the organization of cognitive mutual training, seminars, exchanges, diffusion , so as to stimulate the creative and create more knowledge. third is the recognition of knowledge, evaluation assessment evaluation can not form the mechanism of knowledge development. the fourth incentive problems, knowledge itself recognize and evaluate the organization need to stimulate knowledge development like production products, the formation of a development mechanism, a positive feedback mechanism knowledge developers, because people value orientation is personalized, Therefore, in order for the individual knowledge continuously develop, allows developers to form a life cycle, at least in the form of a loop, you need to be an effective incentive for people engaged in knowledge development. Individual knowledge development process.
Knowledge of the development process is a generation of tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge of mutual promotion and mutual transformation process.
On the one hand, tacit knowledge is a resource, as a factor of production, it is any knowledge creation are indispensable from the origin of knowledge, tacit knowledge, it is impossible to generate explicit knowledge. A recessive form of knowledge once into the dominant form of it will become a knowledge of the content and form have some certainty. This sense, the explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge of derivatives.
Tacit knowledge, on the other hand, for the individual is also a harvest or resources, but in the sense of knowledge economy, we still could not be called results for its existence, people still can not grasp exactly it into explicit knowledge, can be seen as a method for determining the output the same time, in the knowledge of the development process, explicit knowledge sometimes has inspired people to think, and thus lead to new tacit knowledge, from this sense, the accumulation and development of explicit knowledge, tacit knowledge is also impossible to get considerable development on a knowledge of the produce, tacit knowledge is explicit knowledge results for the development of knowledge as a whole, the accumulation of knowledge development a step on the ladder is alternating between explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge constitute recessive the development of knowledge and explicit knowledge are two indivisible aspects of the knowledge-based development, whether from the main body to undertake the development of knowledge or from the knowledge scale development activities, there are different levels divided into knowledge development objective It includes personal knowledge development organizations (including enterprises, research institutes and university knowledge development and knowledge development at three different levels. individual level of knowledge and development is the core and foundation of knowledge development activities of the society as a whole. Commonly referred to as knowledge is explicit knowledge, some of them by the master, some leave independent existence, objective knowledge.
Bears the same organizational knowledge, tacit knowledge is extremely rich. Recessive knowledge through the abstract language, text and coding symbol to be expressed inside out has become explicit knowledge from the origin of knowledge, practice and innovative thinking is the source of knowledge, knowledge always exists in the form of tacit knowledge first tacit knowledge is full of water in the reservoir of knowledge, explicit knowledge is tacit knowledge spills. occupies a large proportion of personal knowledge, tacit knowledge, personal to grasp knowledge always integrated with the tacit knowledge as a whole, or the personal possession of explicit knowledge always resides in tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge in the process of knowledge creation, inspired and driven tacit knowledge, implicit sexual knowledge breeds new tacit knowledge, and to lay the foundation for a new generation of explicit knowledge. development of knowledge is the two kinds of knowledge interactions into each other in the process.
The development of new knowledge first generation of tacit knowledge and its externalization process developers to effectively create, he must strive to go beyond the self. Beyond the self beyond self try sexual practices, including the formation of the tacit knowledge, and excavations and explicitation of tacit knowledge, and ultimately the formation of explicit knowledge, each of which are inseparable from the developer of self-transcendence. Individual knowledge development stage.
New knowledge generated by the normal process of view, we can put the personal knowledge of the development process is divided into the following three stages: the formation of new tacit knowledge, tacit knowledge to the dominant morphological transformation and the formation of new explicit knowledge, significant sexual knowledge objectified and validated, supplements and amendments. First the creators of the stage of formation of tacit knowledge.
At this stage, the knowledge of the creator of the use of a variety of factors of production to produce a new prototype of the knowledge that is tacit knowledge, tacit knowledge generation is the most important part of the production of knowledge, start new tacit knowledge, then there would be no subsequent knowledge production process. tacit knowledge is difficult to grasp Therefore, this process is usually easy to ignore, but new knowledge results after all first to appear recessive form new tacit knowledge as the potential outcome of the original work, it generates completely spontaneous, often in the intent of the creators. fruitful knowledge developers always timely capture new traces of tacit knowledge, to knowledge production to the next stage. both cases the new generation of tacit knowledge, a burst of new tacit knowledge is suddenly, resulting in the creation of who "inspired by" or "epiphany" another progressive new tacit knowledge in the long-term accumulation of experience in that it experienced a subtle process in this case, tacit knowledge can be seen as a by-product of the production of a substance is a long-term repeated.
The second is the new generation of tacit knowledge explicitation stage At this stage, the knowledge producers found the existence of a new prototype of the knowledge, grasp it in a timely manner, through further analysis and refinement, it is clear in the minds of the insurance knowledge revealed, has become more clear and determined, and thus will not be lost in a fuzzy state of knowledge is fleeting, and only when the producers to timely capture it, will it be possible for the next study even enter the second stage, the beginning, the knowledge is still unclear and uncertain, also lack a coherent and logical, when the parties also difficult to discern it is, and what is not new knowledge, can not express and exchange. the second phase of the work is so is not yet clear or uncertain knowledge becomes clear and unambiguous, and the identification, processing and finishing, so that it has become increasingly clear in the minds of the oral presentation of knowledge, that is, we usually refer to explicit knowledge. However, when the explicit knowledge exists in the minds of the creators, but also can not leave the body and exist independently.
Third, finishing, additions and processing of new knowledge, to determine its location in a knowledge-based system, and other knowledge, and be recorded or documented in some form, so that they become objective knowledge, some form of knowledge exists outside the human body. Thereafter, this newly formed knowledge but also with more facts and practical experience to validate and modify and continue to supplement and improve the communication, dissemination and application of.
3. Development of individual knowledge management strategy.
Individual knowledge development related to the individual's way of thinking, ways of working more with the appropriate technology and tools, with individual knowledge in which development environment, atmosphere related In order to carry out the development and management of individual knowledge, should be from the following aspects to do:
First, create a good habit of thinking and ways of working as an individual in terms of knowledge, attitude, habits of thought, work style, communication skills, professionalism, or the spirit of the pursuit of science, is the need to develop, shape and continue to practice. As the saying goes, recognizing decided attitude, attitude determines action, action decided habits, habits decide the style of work or work status, style or work status to determine job performance, in order to achieve good performance, it is necessary to form good habits and style. process of innovation and knowledge Like, good habits and style of the formation of spiral development process, is a continuous culture rising personal terms, it may be than precipitated knowledge, assets more important because, really decide something of personal value of intellectual assets personal style, habits or qualities. Is the choice of the appropriate expression of methods and tools.
Individuals in the difficult process of some tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, we need a proper expression of methods and tools. Metaphorical text, symbolic language, interpretation, inference, model and important tools and instruments of the brainstorming session is used to express the human experience, powerful tool skills, intuition and inspiration, pictures, video, multimedia is tacit knowledge expressed on the part of the tacit knowledge externalization should be modular. Full make good use of information technology.
Individuals in the use of information technology to fully consider how to facilitate innovation and management of knowledge may use electronic discussion system, allowing individuals to write down their experiences and best practices, is stored in the database of the discussion to facilitate the exchange and sharing., summed up the skills, experience and know-how of the personnel to accelerate the speed of expert knowledge externalization application of expert systems on the Internet, with the software development tools accelerate the exchange of knowledge, to a certain extent on the process of sharing and innovation of the most difficult coding tacit knowledge, effective way to establish the "Without a database," knowledge map "expert network system, allow individuals to quickly find the staff to have some kind of tacit knowledge. the office of the portraits of the two face-to-face exchanges as via video tool, eliminating obstacles caused by the spatial distance. IV Conclusion.
Division of explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge breakthroughs in the past, people's understanding of knowledge, will without the systematic processing experience-based knowledge to give recognition If explicit knowledge is the "tip of the iceberg", the tacit knowledge is hidden in the most below the surface, although they are more than explicit knowledge is difficult to find, but it is a core part of the development of personal knowledge, but also the most important source of social wealth.
Knowledge creation process first stage production of the tacit knowledge, the first phase will come to an end when the new tacit knowledge, and then the conversion of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, the formation of new knowledge (or explicit knowledge, again after new explicit knowledge of the object, and when a new knowledge through explicitation and objectified, this knowledge becomes a new objective knowledge (ie objective knowledge in the pop sense .
Finally, in order for the new knowledge to further mature, we must continue to validate changes and additions the future gone through several stages of knowledge is a new and more mature knowledge this point, a knowledge of the production process come to an end, a new knowledge of the results would thus be obtained.
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