Chinese enterprises fusion model path dependence

Abstract: Technology integration is a comprehensive integration process, It is not just a technical activity, enterprise technological innovation activities in a basic behavior. Decades, the Chinese enterprise technology fusion intertwined copy imitation, independent innovation, and to develop . corporate behavior in China's specific national conditions, this activity inherent in thinking and habits stereotype, that path dependence path dependence can be embodied in the actual production of scale, demonstration effect, coordination effects and adaptive expectations. although the path selection and use of the smooth progress of the technical integration activities are largely restricted, but also to maintain the characteristics of the technology carrier itself, make the best use will create greater efficiency.
Keywords: technology integration, technology innovation and technology activities, independent innovation, path dependence.

A question.

The 21st century is a period of rapid development of information technology has become a key factor to measure a country's comprehensive national strength and competitiveness in the international division of labor in the chain, if a country's scientific and technological innovation ability, it will be in the international division of labor chain in a high-end position, thus higher basic platform for upgrading and economic development of the country's comprehensive national strength, which also represents knowledge by exogenous economic variables into endogenous variables. whether economic or political, and technological and knowledge represent the balance of interests has become very critical.
Modern economy, many economists and political scientists agree that: technological innovation is the driving force for social development, Science and Technology who in the world, this view is undoubtedly closely related to the contribution of technology to economic development, according to the findings of the experts for developed countries, the contribution of technology to economic growth rate rapidly changing: from the early 20th century, only about 5%, 40 to 50 years rose to about 40%, 70 to 80 years rose to 60% in the 1990s up to about 80% since the beginning of the new century, the information superhighway networking can be achieved, this contribution is as high as about 90%, while the major scientific and technological achievements commercialization cycle also quickly shortened the early 20th century, about 30 years, the middle of the 20th century roughly 10 years to the late 20th century is reduced to five years. these suggest that technological progress has been rapid economic development accelerator. however, technology development, technology upgrade has a great imbalance in developed countries enterprises using capital and factors of production advantages, and gradually formed the monopoly of the worldwide technology market, and the level of technology in developing countries is usually far from the forefront of world technology with the global economy and technology penetration depth, become a new trend in technology diffusion, in this situation, in order to be able to catch up with the pace of technological development in the world in the shortest possible time, the developing countries are usually imported equipment and technology to boost the national technical progress rapid economic growth.
China is a large developing country, With the rapid economic development, technological innovation, the economic benefits are also increasingly highlights the key role of the technological upgrading of industrial development is becoming increasingly prominent. Accompanied a golden opportunity for the global industrial and technology transfer, The introduction of foreign advanced technology actively promote the diffusion of foreign advanced technology in the domestic of technology development.
Technology, and greatly enhance the possession of the core technology, which not only is a key factor to improve economic efficiency, but also enhance the international status of China's key link. Since the reform and opening up, China's economy has been a leap development of China international status has also been greatly improved, thanks to rapid advances in technology, and technology development needs the protection of the peripheral elements of the state system for a subject, both internal factors and peripheral elements, there is a certain rigidity force, so that the main direction of the development of path dependence.
Second, the evolution of the Chinese enterprise technology fusion mode.

1. The overall development of fusion technology.


From the view of the process of the world's industrial development, the development of any country needs to rely on the continuous development of the technical level, technological progress to promote the substantial expansion of the the escalating industrial structure and market space [1]. Technological progress itself, There are two general ways, First, the primary technological innovation, that rely on their own technical level innovative technology, the performance of the core technologies that have a large number of independent intellectual property rights, the second is the proliferation of technologies, and to learn from other countries through the introduction and state-of-the-art technology to stimulate and mobilize its own technology to participate in the growth of their industrial technology [2].
China is a developing country, is a link in the chain of the development of the world economy, China's technological progress is inevitable aspects of technology development in the world to integrate into the development process of China's industrialization, technology from other countries to accept the inevitable more and more number of proliferation, and in order to drive the technology upgrade. Therefore, in recent years, China's foreign for technical assistance projects, along with the acceleration of the process of introduction of technology, the chain of China's industrial development, technology integration presents different characteristics and mode. Overall, copy, imitate, cooperative development and independent innovation is the three main modes of technology integration. early in the reform and opening up, copy, imitation is the main technology integration model, with the upgrade of the technical level, become a respected model of integration technology independent intellectual property rights in order to be able to have more and more core technology, self-development period, the companies are to accelerate cooperation with foreign enterprises in the process of technological upgrading. fact, three does not clearly time is divided between the modes, often intertwined carried.
Copy imitation and independent innovation.

Copy imitation, which is one of the ways to catch up with the level of advanced countries. For our part, the beginning of reform and opening up, the number of major construction projects have been put into the planning, due to the constraints of the level of productivity in China at that time, technology and equipment are required for many projects need to rely on imports to be resolved. imports after use up too superficial, "copy" ingredients is heavy. prevailing situation after the introduction of a technology transfer from the translation of the drawings to put into mass production, general use 3 years time, the digestion cycle of large complex equipment is also stretched, in our trial, the level of foreign technology will still continue to move forward, would have resulted in a product is put into production, the performance index of less than the level of imported products, it is difficult to form economies of scale and more importantly, has changed due to technology by relying on the carrier, still stuck in the lower level master existing technology to improve the localization rate after introduction, and thus can not form independent research and development of innovative space, it is difficult to get out "introduction - backward - and the introduction of - and then backward" trap.
With the deepening of reform and opening up, the national science and technology system has made significant adjustments gradually to independent innovation as the key steps of the technology development, corporate ownership of the introduction of technology has improved [3]. Past that has become due to the selection of foreign "mature period "even outdated technology" time lag "the gradual change in the event of the kind of" used "rote problems gradually recognize businesses and countries. Thus, in the level of technology to improve and economic environment big change, the focus of enterprise technology development also occurred with transfer and tilt, large and medium-sized state-owned enterprises on behalf of my overall level of technology research and development and the introduction of technology digestion and absorption of inputs has intensified, and on this basis, to increase The new products of the R & D investment increased year by year, the number of patent applications by enterprises and the number of invention patents, and has a number of patents for inventions.

3. Cooperation developers.


In order to better implementation of technology introduction, to narrow the technology gap in developed countries, starting from the early 1980s, China on a wide range of foreign scientific and technological exchanges and cooperation, including technical exchange and learning, scientific and technological cooperation. Cooperation in technology development is one of the effective means to bring the technology upgrade, when carrying out technical learning and technical exchange, the majority of Chinese enterprises to learn and the introduction of foreign advanced technology, therefore, cooperation in the development process with obvious imitation produced ingredients.
Technology convergence.

Of technology and economic development with distinct Chinese characteristics, and also has a structural reform of the imaging characteristics from the basic national conditions, the reform and opening up, China's enterprises are basically state-owned enterprises, production was the lack of competition in the market to promote corporate mission is to produce national plans within the product and technology R & D Research Institute in the major business and technology R & D requirements, did not carry out technical R & D capacity, after the reform and opening up, with the The continuous injection of international capital, more and more advanced technology into the Chinese market, which has brought a fierce competitive products and technologies, but also enable enterprises to continuously strengthen and learn from the advanced technology of the external However, as a developing country, China For there is a great gap between the technical and developed countries, the asymmetry of this technology prompted through a variety of ways to get the technology spillover effect in developed countries relative to developed countries rely mainly on independent research and development to upgrade their technological level the introduction of state-of-the-art technology, the digestion and absorption of innovation is an effective way to turn again, to avoid the original innovation risks. Indeed, many countries are in this way to accelerate its own development after World War II, Korea Japan and other countries and regions in the case of backward technology, through the introduction of advanced external technology and thus the improved incremental innovation successfully to achieve rapid economic development has become the world's technology leader. According to the 1976 survey of the National Science Foundation, 21 years 1953 - 1973, the worldwide total of 500 major technological innovation, of which about 90% are improved progressive technological innovation, visible, improved innovation performance just as much as the original innovation, from the introduction of advanced The technology improved starting innovation is one important way.
The introduction of technology is a way, the key is to look at the digestion and absorption of imported technology, if only the introduction and use of, then there is a great dependence would be felt by the external technology, technology introduction, the main body is still a lack of independent intellectual property rights technology. According to the State Intellectual Property Office of Statistics, at present, Chinese enterprises with independent intellectual property rights is just more than 2,000, only the ten thousandths of the total number of enterprises, 99% of Chinese enterprises own patents, trademarks owned by the enterprise only accounting for 40%. many companies manufacturing did not create, there is no intellectual property "our dependence of foreign technology enterprises up to 50% or more, the introduction of technology is the main way of technological progress, the majority of the industry's core basically dependent on the introduction of technology and equipment, such as optical fiber manufacturing equipment 100% dependent on imports, have to rely on imports for more than 80% of the integrated circuit chip manufacturing equipment and petrochemical equipment, rely on imports for more than 60% of investment in equipment, only about 39% of the contribution rate of scientific and technological progress, in such conditions, The independent innovation promoting effects of technological progress will be less than ideal, and in a fairly long period of time, the introduction of foreign technology and imitation will remain an important way of technological progress. This shows that although China has spent a lot of manpower, financial resources to the introduction of advanced technology, but the introduction of technology digestion analysis capability is still significantly weaker, secondary innovation capacity is a serious shortage of fundamental that it is difficult to grasp the advanced technology, the formation of self-development technology components such as the 2006 Technology introduction of expenditures reached 32.043 billion yuan, while expenditures for digestion and absorption of only 8.186 billion yuan, not strong absorption of foreign advanced technology, the introduction of a generic version of the technology and products, failed to quickly improve our capacity for independent innovation, " introduction - backward - introduction - and then backward "vicious circle continues mover advantage has not been in the technology effectively.
Third, the Chinese enterprise technology integration path dependence.

The evolution of the economy has a certain path-dependent characteristics, this path dependence reflect technological change and institutional evolution, so that the technological and institutional innovations developed along a certain path. Presence would be beneficial to the current path dependence the development of technical and economic system, to the detriment of other technical and economic model generation and growth, so that the strong get stronger and the weak constant weak [4].
Path dependence theory research.

Path dependence of the specific meaning refers to the evolution of technology or institutional change in human society, are similar to the physics of inertia, that once into a path (either "good" or "bad" may this path dependence path dependency First proposed in 1985 by Paul David W Malan Arthur, after further development on this basis, the formation of a technology evolution path dependent systems thinking, and later, Douglass North predecessors thought about this expansion to the field of social and institutional change, and thus establish institutional change in path dependency theory.
Northrop institutional change path dependency theory, mainly pointed out three things: first, the system with the technology, as there are increasing returns and self-reinforcing mechanism, strengthened This causes the system established in the direction of the future development, namely rapid optimization along the virtuous cycle track, or continue to decline along the original error mess it will be locked in some kind of inefficient state, once locked, you want to get out out you need the help of external effects, the introduction of exogenous variables or rely on regime change in order to reverse the original direction. Institutional Change In addition to the influence of increasing returns, is also affected by the impact of market trading factors, increasing returns and incomplete market system becomes unimportant. third, institutional change than the technology evolution is more complex, different policy actors subjectivism model the various systems model differences [5].
"Path dependence" stems from the positive feedback mechanism in the institutional evolution of such a positive feedback mechanism through the system of scale demonstration effect, coordination effects and adaptive expectations performance [6] Specifically, the scale effect refers to is in the process of institutional change, when the system of the main body to change the form of the existing system and the use of another new system in the form of time, due to the presence of inertial forces, the implementation of the new system will be certain obstacles, implementation scale will thus restricted, and this will bring about the improvement of the new system implementation costs, but with the implementation of the new system and the expansion of the scope of its original cost of investment will decline with the related system implementation can bring scale, This situation is similar to the decline of the economies of scale brought about by the marginal cost demonstration effect is that people's behavior will bring the benefits of the new system implementation to catch up and follow the example of learning, so that more and more actors the system, and to accelerate the implementation and diffusion of the new system, which is an important way to promote institutional change, but more groups to adopt a system, the more difficult the change and transformation of the system in the future. coordination effect refers to the system and coordination between its support of the relevant rules, the system subject to established interests and complement each other's activities, which brought a phenomenon --- established system supporting measures complement and coordinate the implementation of interest associated effect, this is like a chain, where any ring broken loose is bound to cause the entire chain. Institutional Change, when the established system of matching rules established, any behavior will change the established system of the entire system chain generated crisis, not only institutional stakeholders, and supporting systems stakeholders will have an impact. adaptive expectations is the main system for implementation of effective psychological expectations of the system and its supporting system with effective increased with the increase, and will continue with the implementation of the system of the interests of the future is expected to, once established this expectation will have great stability, potential resistance to the new system will generate.
Path dependence reflected a positive feedback mechanism, involving the behavior has strengthened and stability, in order to replace the existing system with some other new system, it is necessary to break the existing path dependence, which is not only a system re-enactment and implementation issues, and is a systematic project, with all aspects related to the entire actors, including the concerted action of the organization system, production system, belief systems, and other related departments.
In the beginning of the system or decision-making, often random events determine the state of the system, with the promotion and implementation of the system, there are bound to be a lot of the original investment cost, with the deepening of the degree of implementation of the system, expanding the scope of its investment costs would also fall, and there will be a large number of actors involved in the promotion process in the system, is able to generate a demonstration effect, the common interests of the behavior more closely linked to the established environment, thereby stimulating the generation of coordinated effects, which generate a dependency of the institutional framework of the original, do not want to make any changes in the kinds of effects causes the actors, the passage of time, the actors inert on performance, and derive a lot of informal common rules, follow these system chain will make actors adaptive expectations, and adaptability expected steady state, the change in the original system becomes more difficult. posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com
institutional change of technology convergence path dependence.

From the technical activities of the main - the main corporate and institutional change for the technical integration of the specific technical activities, path dependence - the countries understood in two levels.
(1 enterprise technology development path dependence.

Northrop institutional change in the path dependency theory, a similar situation also exists at the enterprise level. Continuity of business development, and development is largely influenced by the early development of enterprises, today's technology (the system is built on the early technology (based on institutional improvement, the technology of tomorrow (institutional progress and establish today the basis of [7], the result of enterprise search today is not only a new technology, and enhance new knowledge and the formation of tomorrow building block [8]. enterprise at any point on the stock of knowledge from the accumulation of new knowledge enterprises in the past the learning process and the loss of the value of the old knowledge constantly abandoned [9] This continuous accumulation and abandoned enable enterprises to form a specific intrinsic value system and the inertia of thinking in the development process, and continue to strengthen the concrete practice of the process of this established production and practice mode, enterprise-house technology, culture "target =" _blank corporate culture and management thinking has some rigid force established pattern and system protection has a tendency to have a natural resistance to the new technology and systems, this is the path dependence in corporate technology development process.
Path dependence in the process of enterprise development, so that the existing strengths in technology and enterprise system occupies more space for development, and self-reinforcing, self-improvement, and become the dominant force in, means that existing technology and system the rigid strength will potentially resistance to foreign technology and system, even if the alien technology and the system is more advanced than existing technology and systems will be the enterprise existing power to resist., however, if this is not suited to strengthen the existing technology and system the needs of the development of the situation, the future development of enterprises will be hampered., path dependence helps enterprises to form their own competitiveness, but blindly adhere will become a limiting factor for enterprise development.
A very important stage for the technical integration of the businesses, is a combination of its own technology with the introduction of technology. When corporate existence path dependence factors of production, tend to form a rigid force of human factors and non-human factors. Rigidity of the non-human factors force Obviously, production equipment and packaging brand, have relative stability and short-term non-alterability the production practice makes the people engaged in this field for a long time, human factors, must be the formation of a specific production and management skills, knowledge and experience of centralized identity formation of the new elements of the external barriers to intervene, mainly in three aspects of the art Heli constraints, limitations of enterprise cognitive level, and the shackles of corporate culture when existing enterprises in the technology integration process technology has limitations but not yet perceived, often will continue to invest resources in order to ensure the emergence of the expected benefits, short-term high efficiency make enterprises to follow the development path, and continue to expand production, leading to deeper and deeper technical limitations, cognitive reaction of limitations in technology integration activities, technical integration of business from the original production and management practices to another mode up, the past path dependence makes this transition becomes very difficult, technical integration requires groups shared cognitive skills of cooperation, a single cognitive hinder even undermine the integration of activities carried out, the corporate culture is implicit in the characteristics of the employees who skills, it is a shared value concept, very powerful role in guiding and irreplaceable stability once formed, in order to change it requires a lot of investment, corporate culture is more powerful, unified values ​​and code of conduct, the stronger the force, the heterogeneity of the values ​​of the more difficult to enter.
(2 national institutional change path dependence.

Northrop believe, "People used to make selection decisions they may now select" [10], namely the so-called path dependence is the person or thing is the dependence of the effect certain behavior, it can lead to the established direction of actors continuous self-reinforcing, the result is to make the implementation of the new system can not be separated from the environment of the original system, and in order to make the new system more efficient, you must use the established elements, this process is inseparable from the system of the formation of the initial conditions affected and constrained., technology development route selection and policy formulation, the role of path dependence is obvious.
For general ideas once formed a group, it will reflect a lot of stability and is irreplaceable, when the people after the formation of specific cognitive framework of existing ideas, it will form habits, habits understanding, selection and use of limit people to new ideas when the habit has been in use on the formation of the customs in this case, the yearning of the people rely on the old system in use will exceed the new system.
In the process of institutional change in China, the far-reaching impact of the history of the formation of the "big government, small community" mode. Bureaucratic management regime that lasted for thousands of years, "With the collapse of the old political system from the authority of the fault, of all social relations damage effects to the Chinese people in their reconstruction of the political system often also elitist structure and level of authority "[11] this governance model leads to weak awareness of public participation in the new system formulation and implementation process will be independent has something overlooked the supervision of the relevant government departments to the overall reform of the country's transformation from a planned economy to a market economy, before the highly centralized economic system led to the prevalence of the "official position" , lack of awareness of people's sovereignty, and the formation of a "versatile" government each past reform government from top to bottom, people wait and passive acceptance psychological formed a kind of inertia of thinking, the government in this inertia ways of thinking tend to concentrate in the development of relevant policies. lack of implementation of the participation of the main formulation of the system is easy to lose contact with reality.
Therefore, the existence of path dependence makes the formulation and implementation of the new system there are some obstacles in the reform process, the choice of the initial path is very critical, "the success of the reform depends not only on the subjective desire and ultimate goal of the reformers , and depends on the selected path in the beginning even if the target is clear, specific measures of general direction is right, but as long as there are some subtle error in the choice of the initial path, the development of the future, it will according to their own logic, the deviation from the original goal of evolution to another system to go away from the original design [12] Therefore, in the process of policy formulation and implementation of scientific and technical guidance, our existing management thought occupy a certain dominance and space, retains Serve the concept of making a new science and technology policy formulation and adjustment subject to certain restrictions. although the reform and opening up 30 years, but peripheral protection policy is a step-by-step, with the technical requirements of the changing and the continuous development of the situation and make the appropriate adjustments. Such adjustments must adapt to the mindset and habits formed in the past, while the times must fight the impact of old habits, to some extent, so as to make objective guidance.

[References]


Science & Technology Progress and Policy, 2012 (one seventy-two - 75. [1] Taipei metropolitan residents, Katrina, Ma Shangping Technical mutation independent innovation strategy positioning method research [J].

[2] China Industrial Development Report --- Chinese industrial technology innovation [M] Beijing: Economic Management Press, 2004 (2.
[3] State of Yan Ling, SUN Hong evolution trend of foreign technology and industrial innovation policy research and technological progress and Countermeasures [J]., 2010 (12.

[4] YANG Yu-xiu Enterprises Based on Path Dependence Analysis [J] Journal of Yunnan University of Finance and Economics, 2008 (4:105 - 109.
[5] Douglas Northrop. System, Institutional Change and Economic Performance [M] Shanghai: Shanghai Joint Publishing, 1994:1 - 2.

[6] Zhang Xing Ming political system evolution path depends Exploration [J]. Sichuan Administration College, 2007 (6:48 - 50.

[7] Ren Li, Wang Ningning. The Evolutionary Economics formation and development [J]. Southwest China Normal University (Humanities and Social Science Edition, 2006 (1
[8] Richard R Nelson, Sidney G · Winter evolutionary theory of economic change [M] Beijing: Commercial Press, 1997.
[9] Gao Fenglian paragraph Huijuan industrial agglomeration and Economic Growth Research [J]. Scientific and technological progress and Countermeasures .2010 (24.

[10] the Douglas Northrop. System, system changes and economic performance [M] Shanghai: Shanghai Joint Publishing, 1994.

[11] [] James. R. Townsend Chinese political [M], Nanjing: Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 2003 (28.

[12] Jinglian path dependence of China's reform --- comments Northrop Professor lecture [J]. Reform, 1995 (3:58. Posted in the free papers Download Center http://eng.hi138.com

Corporate Strategy Papers