Impact of XBRL on the CPA Audit and Countermeasures

XBRL, once there, has aroused widespread concern in domestic and foreign scholars, Debreceny, etc. (2001, Rezaee, etc. (2001, Strand, etc. (2001, Weber (2003 a large number of foreign scholars and Yang Haifeng (2006, Pan Yan et al (2007 all of the XBRL related issues were discussed, these scholars mainly related to XBRL taxonomies, XBRL ledger, XBRL for financial reporting to improve other aspects of Shanghai Jiaotong University Antai School of Management, Dr. Gao Jinping from XBRL Financial Reporting classification standards point of trying to establish a set of evaluation methods, the definition of the classification level of information elements were evaluated. Wang Mu and Yeh studied the application of XBRL in our situation, that the great efforts of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, China's two exchanges in Shanghai and Shenzhen as early as 2002 began the promotion of research and application of XBRL in 2005, all listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen have been achieved using XBRL for the full report and summary of periodic disclosure in and refinancing the company's first XBRL taxonomy building, the Commission is leading the parties in-depth study. SSE began in early 2008, financial listed companies to disclose financial information, the other two exchanges in Shanghai and Shenzhen are also ongoing study of the temporary disclosure announcement Zhao and Yan Pei-ling change of the XBRL defects and to our negative impact of the audit, that in the design and development of XBRL, due to the limitations of the developer, not too much to consider XML-based network security issues, XBRL financial information disclosure risks inherent insecurity. XBRL open information disclosure function to internal and external information users convenience, but also produced a business intelligence leak, information tampering threats, greatly reduces the reliability of financial information while not guaranteed as XBRL and Financial Information safety and reliability, so need to rely on the successful implementation of XBRL independent third party certification body (such as auditors, accounting firms and other audit work through accurate information to enhance and ensure the safe and reliable, which is bound to expand the audit staff scope of business, to audit a huge impact. domestic scholars have studied the related XBRL for audit, audit efficiency, audit functions, audit approach and other impacts.

The study to regulate the research-based, very few people from the empirical point of view to analyze the application of XBRL in the CPA industry, this paper intends to use the survey method to collect the current CPA awareness of XBRL, the accounting firm for our case the use of audit software investigation, not only help to understand XBRL as a new business reporting language, the application status in the CPA industry can learn from the side of the computer-assisted audit techniques in the penetration rate of China's accounting firm.

First, the experimental design and survey analysis

(A survey questionnaire based on the investigation of China's accounting firm of XBRL

The awareness level in the questionnaire into the body of a total of three areas: Basic accounting firm (the quality of personnel, firm size, income scale; accounting firms are using information technology, computer-assisted audit aspects, CPA for the XBRL basic understanding of the situation (about ways to understand the extent that without the need for the implementation of XBRL, etc. in accordance with the typical combination of survey and sampling methods, the questionnaire directly to Changsha and medium-sized accounting firm hands of employees, and on-site recycling . (September 26, 2010, 120 questionnaires, 89 questionnaires were recovered, the recovery rate of 74.17%.

(B investigation and analysis of the returned questionnaires, two removed in accordance with the principles of screening: a serious lack of data, a large number of survey questions is not complete, and the other is Tianda when they fill out a questionnaire with an option number to be removed. A total exclusion of 14 papers, the final processing of the questionnaires for the analysis of the number 75. analysis of the questionnaire before using Cronbachps Cronbach Alpha reliability test questionnaires, test results show that the overall coefficient of the questionnaire is 0.78, indicating that the questionnaire's internal consistency higher Effective recovery process and results of the questionnaire analysis are: (1 questionnaire for all whether there is independent information technology department of the answer is yes. illustrates the Changsha City accounting firm focusing on information technology and computer technology in the audit work applications (2 investigation firm in the application of computer-assisted audit techniques, the survey found that only two answers: that the application of computer-aided audit techniques accounted for 46.67% of strong, that the application is generally accounted for 53.33 % (3 most attention in the investigation of CPA audit software which functions, statistics obtained with 13.33% of respondents focus on audit sampling software capabilities and query capabilities, there are 26.67% of respondents focus on aggregate computing power, only with 6.67% of the respondents focus on audit software audit capabilities for all options are selected 40% of persons present, the CPA attaches great importance to the computer-assisted audit techniques, the most valued is the ability to audit software and sample summary counting ability, not value the query capabilities of audit software and audit capabilities. (4 in the survey, audit software that can effectively improve the efficiency of audit staff 80%, the rest of the respondents that the use of no do not use computer-assisted audit techniques significant difference between the 20% (5 for the application of XBRL analysis of the survey: in the effective recovery of the questionnaire, only less than 20% of the staff had heard of this form of financial reports; 17% of staff occasionally read this form of financial statements of listed companies, and the remaining 80% of respondents said such software has never touched, never read this kind of financial reports in XBRL contact with the staff, there 26.67% of people said that its function is very powerful, saw the form of XBRL financial reporting staff in the 1 / 3 of people believe that the forms and PDF forms of financial reporting is not much difference for those who come into contact with the staff questionnaire XBRL further statistics, 26.67% of the staff through the network to understand the application of XBRL, 13.3% of the staff through financial documents and information related to academic journals learned (6 of Certified Public Accountants and the firm's level of expectation for XBRL results show: firm that cost can accept the premise, it is willing to introduce XBRL-related system software. 1 / 3 of the employees said he was looking forward to the introduction of 1 / 3 of the people that depend on market and policy support, as well as 1 / 3 of the officers, indifferent attitude can be seen to promote the use of XBRL, there are still some difficulties, public acceptance is not very high. Links to free download

Two, XBRL impact of CPA audit

(A) the audit of space-time transformation from the time point of view, the traditional seasonal CPA audit work, a large number of reports have focused on the year-end audit work. XBRL environment, every business transaction information will be automatically transferred in the transaction to the transaction database, and transaction data in the database will enter the company's financial database, the data were compiled in a variety of accounts, reports, files and legal records, for data recognition, measurement and recording speed will be greatly improved, which makes real-time disclosure of financial reports as possible, report the contents of the existing financial reporting includes not only information but also more non-financial information, so CPA can be audited in real time on the audit, the business can be more evenly allocated to one year them, so that real-time monitoring from space point of view, the traditional CPA auditors to collect audit evidence about the case of the audited entity, usually take the place of work temporarily transferred to the way the audited entity, the length of time depending on project size, was with the degree of audit units and other specific factors. Although this work is conducive to the auditors and the audited entity and timely communication, but as a result of changes in the environment to the traditional work of the CPA have a great impact and when companies use XBRL technology the disclosure of financial information, CPA can be audited by browsing websites, can be the basis of the audit process will need to download XBRL instance document information in the data analysis, or direct-line inspection and use.

(B CPA increased the risk of audit risk mainly from the audit risk, audit risk factors affecting in part because of the reliability of audit evidence and the evidence strong enough. XBRL itself does not guarantee companies create XBRL reports using the classification standard is appropriate, auditors need to verify whether the classification criteria used by the company comply with the approved or recognized by the classification, the classification of enterprises to expand elements of the verification whether the XBRL specification requirements. and in the preparation of financial statements using XBRL in the case, the risk of error not only focus on the appropriate use of the classification criteria, and the accounts are accurately mapped to the corresponding elements are also very important if the mapping criteria wrong, the accounting entries may be incorrectly placed in the accounting statements of a different location.

In addition, making the audit frequency to speed up real-time audit, may affect the accuracy of the audit review, which will lead to increased risk of audit.

(Three changes in scope of the audit of the CPA audit is mostly limited to traditional financial reports of the project, XBRL XBRL financial reporting environment can include more financial and non-financial information audit software audit in accordance with the specific task of automatic network access through Web services customer enterprise information systems in XBRL standardization documents, and internal processing logic according to a predetermined depth into the business processes of different transactions, such as sales processes, payment processes, production processes, etc., and accordingly set the required audit evidence, such as total ledger, accounts receivable subsidiary ledgers, cash journal, etc. scope of the audit can be extended to the entire information system.

(D) audit efficiency and to create XBRL data, once normalized, without a second type or reformat, CPA can choose to include the numbers and text messages, including all corporate information, the data into a spreadsheet, to a large extent reduces the processing, calculating and formatting financial information costs, reducing manual data input or typing error rate may occur, reducing data entry and conversion audit staff time, more time will be placed on the analysis of the audited entity on the nature of review, and help to improve the speed and accuracy of analytical review, and ultimately to the audit unit, investors and other stakeholders to submit higher-quality audit reports.

Three, XBRL environment, response to CPA

(A publicity and education to enhance the XBRL XBRL is a new thing, China's accounting staff, auditors almost no knowledge of the appropriate reserves. XBRL China regional organizations with the power of XBRL publishing classified national standards, international and domestic academic conferences held, use the site publicity, seminars, etc., to increase the publicity and promotion of XBRL.

(B train auditors operating capacity of XBRL software tools in the continuous audit environment, auditors should master the general operation of XBRL software tools, such as consistency of application suite XBRL XBRL financial reporting and inspection company classification standards issued by the State or stock exchange standards issued by the difference, the elements of XBRL financial reporting reliability, relevance verification.

(Three to collaborative software development audit of accounting information system software mainly for the traditional audit the audited entity's internal control, reporting data reliability and relevance of design in the state of the XBRL taxonomy, how to refine the national standard to each an industry or business of each supply chain will be the ability to audit software, new research directions, new technologies such as audit automation, embedded audit modules, integration testing, collaborative audit tools will increasingly be applied in practice to. Therefore, the audited entity on the basis of the original design of embedded information systems audit module to achieve the original audit software and information systems (such as ERP systems audit of collaborative software development will be the main direction. Links to free download http : / /
(D to improve the ability of auditors to resist risks XBRL network environment requires auditors to not only understand the accounting and auditing knowledge, but also well versed in computers, networks and software knowledge, therefore, to improve the knowledge of auditors, the accounting firm to audit personnel recruiting compound , to the existing knowledge of XBRL audit staff training in this environment, auditors should be audited on the effectiveness of internal control computer for all aspects of assessment, a detailed test firewall, antivirus software, passwords and other authorization in order to reduce the internal control the risk of relying on XBRL instance documents audit software validation manual proofreading to reduce the error, relying on digital analysis software (eg EXCEL) analysis of XBRL instance documents to download review, substantive minimize audit risk.


[1] Gao Jin Ping: < >, Lixin Accounting Press, 2008 edition.
[2] Qu Jilin: < >, <<Accounting Communication>> No. 9, 2004.

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